From this article you will learn how allergies manifest in infants (newborns and children up to a year), as well as the main causes of its appearance.
When it comes to medicine, it is very important to understand: a child is not a small adult, it is a very special organism in which all processes proceed differently. A logical conclusion follows from this statement: the same pathology in adults and children can clinically “look” completely different. In addition, allergic diseases are in principle polymorphic and can produce a wide variety of symptoms.
In order to understand in time that the body of a small child reacts too strongly to any allergen, and take measures to interrupt contact with this substance, you need to know how allergies manifest in infants.
Causes of Allergies
In the first year of life, only maternal antibodies circulate in the baby’s blood. Almost every substance is foreign to the baby, unfamiliar, and therefore potentially dangerous.
When an allergen first enters the body, the cells are sensitized, i.e. become sensitive to it. Repeated ingestion of this substance leads to the release of special active products - inflammatory mediators. They, in turn, act on the body, causing the symptoms of allergies.
As you know, among all products and substances there are more and less allergenic. For infants, the most allergenic protein is cow's milk - casein. The body cannot cope with its digestion, and unprocessed residues cause hypersensitivity (allergy to milk in its pure form, to an unadapted mixture).
An allergy to complementary foods, including for fish, for eggs, for fruit puree. Often there is an allergy to drugs.
According to research, to the main food allergens relate:
Photo: Food allergy in infants is the most common reaction of an unformed organism
- cow's milk,
They get either with breast milk, or in the form of complementary foods.
In addition to food allergies, it is possible contact - for diapers, cosmetics, detergent and clothing.
So-called household allergies develops on animal hair and saliva, on dust.
The body of the newborn
The body of a newborn baby during the first months after birth continues to improve and adapt to changing living conditions for him.
The immune system is characterized by incomplete functioning, and this becomes the main cause of various types of allergic reactions.
Treatment of allergies in infants should be carried out immediately, since in advanced cases, the disease leads to quite serious health problems.
But in order to choose the right tactics for caring for a newborn with this pathology, it is necessary first of all to know how the intolerance reaction proceeds, to which allergens it occurs most often and which diseases have similar symptoms.
The main types of allergies characteristic of children in their first year of life
Allergy is a specific immune response that develops when the body perceives a number of substances as foreign proteins.
According to statistics, about 40% of children in the first year of life suffer an allergic reaction of varying severity. By types of allergies in newborns are divided into:
Often, in addition to the atypical immune response, the cause of the development of the disease in newborns is the insufficient functioning of the digestive system.
The digestive organs of infants cannot fully cope with the processing of large molecules, which include allergens. And this leads to their penetration into the bloodstream and, accordingly, to the launch of a specific reaction.
Another factor affecting insufficient digestion of food is a reduced production of enzymes. All this affects the frequent development of allergies to food and other irritants precisely in infants and children of the first two to three years of life.
There are a lot of substances that can provoke the start of a pathology, in infancy, the crumb body mainly reacts to:
- FOOD . Often the first allergic reaction occurs when parents begin to feed their babies. The immune system perceives fruity, less often vegetable juices and mashed potatoes, cereals as foreign proteins. A strong allergen is cow's milk, more precisely its proteins. In order to reduce the likelihood of food intolerance in infants, the mother should be introduced complementary foods gradually, in small portions, and those types of food that are suitable for age should be given.
- COMPOSITION OF WOMEN'S BREAST MILK. If the disease manifests itself in a newborn who feeds solely on mother’s milk, then a woman’s diet should first be reviewed. The baby may not perceive many foods, so in the first months, mother should adhere to a strict diet. The use of foods with a high degree of allergenicity should be completely eliminated - citrus fruits, nuts, semi-finished products with flavorings and colors, fatty dishes. To understand what the baby’s body responds to, a diary should be kept with a record of all the foods eaten and changes in the health of the baby. Each new product is introduced gradually over several days.
- ON ARTIFICIAL MIXES. It is difficult for some children who are converted to artificial feeding to find the right mixture. Intolerance in this case can occur on the proteins of cow or goat milk included in the baby food, on additional vitamins and minerals. The choice of adapted, that is, close in composition to human milk, nutrition will help reduce the likelihood of pathology to the mixture.
- HOUSEHOLD CHEMISTRY, COSMETICS. The cause of an allergic rash and other changes in the skin are chemicals that are part of washing powders, sanitary napkins, soaps, and shampoos. In order to prevent the development of this type of allergy, all means for caring for the skin of the baby should be chosen and for washing its clothes especially carefully, giving preference to products intended for infants.
- COMPONENTS OF MEDICINES. Children of the first year of life often suffer respiratory diseases, infections and for their treatment the pediatrician prescribes certain medications. The main danger from taking them is the risk of allergic reactions. The likelihood of their occurrence is reduced if the medicine itself and its dosage are chosen correctly for the baby, so you should not risk the health of the crumbs - you should always consult a pediatrician for the appointment of drug therapy. The reaction to drugs is manifested by rashes on the body, face, itching, in severe cases, swelling and anaphylactic shock.
- VACCINES. Vaccination of a newborn prevents the development of the most dangerous diseases, but the reverse side of vaccinations is the development of an allergy to them. Redness at the injection site, temperature, lethargy are considered normal manifestations of the post-vaccination reaction. The pathology is evidenced by a skin rash, the appearance of shortness of breath, suffocation, convulsions, with these symptoms, you must quickly call a doctor or emergency team.
IMPORTANT TO READ: Allergy to detergent, symptoms, treatment.
In infants - artificers, allergic reactions occur more often, and the dependence of the disease on heredity has been established. If both parents suffer from this disease, then the probability of its occurrence in their children approaches 70%.
Predisposing factors for the formation of a specific reaction of the immune system to different types of stimuli are considered to be the treatment of a woman during pregnancy with antibiotics, smoking of the expectant mother and poor nutrition with a predominance of a large number of allergenic products.
How to distinguish allergies in infants from other diseases
Most parents first of all associate the appearance of a rash on the baby’s body precisely with allergic reactions, and they independently begin to treat this ailment.
But this is fundamentally wrong, the first thing that mom and dad should understand is that the treatment of a newborn should only be done together with a doctor.
Another important point is the similarity of the disease with other pathologies and physiological conditions in a child of the first year of life, the elimination of which requires either time or the use of completely different drugs.
Only a qualified specialist can accurately diagnose, and the following descriptions of diseases similar in manifestations to allergies will help parents choose the right tactics for their behavior.
Miles on the face of a newborn
If rashes on the face appeared in the crumbs in the first month of his life, then most likely this is not an allergy, but miles. Their appearance is associated with hormonal changes in the body of the child, which ends around the end of the third month.
That is, all this time on different parts of the face, and more on the cheeks, chin, small, point pimples with a reddish color and with a white center may appear.
They do not need to be touched, squeezed out, treated with alcohol, miles will pass by themselves and they will not cause any discomfort to the crumb.
Sweating is another common problem in infants.
It appears when the baby's body overheats, in contrast to an allergic rash, rashes with sweating are localized under the chin and on the upper half of the chest, back on the back, on the neck, in natural folds.
Another hallmark of a rash during overheating of the body is its disappearance at the moment when the skin is stretched.
How is an allergy in a baby: photo
Rubella is an infectious disease that leads to the appearance of a small reddish rash on the skin.
Rashes with this infection first appear on the face, then spread throughout the body.
With allergies, skin changes occur simultaneously. A distinctive sign of rubella is also considered an increase in body temperature and the development of symptoms of intoxication.
After how long does an allergy appear in infants?
An allergic reaction to food products, depending on the type of hypersensitivity, can occur both in a few minutes after eating (oral symptoms), and in 1-2 hours and even the next day.
Allergens pass into breast milk on average within 3 hours after the mother has ingested food.
Symptoms of a contact reaction occur on the skin quite quickly - just a few minutes after contact with the allergen.
Symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract
How is an allergy in infants to the most allergenic foods? The most common two variants of the clinical picture: immediate gastrointestinal hypersensitivity (NGG) and oral allergic syndrome (SLA).
Pain in the stomach and increased gas formation - frequent companions of food allergies in infants
In the first case, the following symptoms appear from a few minutes to a couple of hours after eating allergenic products:
- abdominal pain
- diarrhea (appears after 2-6 hours).
Perhaps a combination with skin reactions, lacrimation, bronchospasm.
OSA is usually associated with an allergy to pollen and, in turn, manifests itself:
- burning in the oral cavity
- swelling of the lips, tongue and palate.
Symptoms usually appear immediately after taking certain foods (most often these are fruits or vegetables). Sensitization occurs long before this moment with pollen, in composition similar to allergy-causing products (we are talking about the so-called cross-allergy). It should be borne in mind that in this case an allergic reaction develops already at the first contact with an allergen from fruits or vegetables.
Mucus and discoloration of the stool may be signs of an allergic reaction.
A rarer manifestation may be proctocolitis caused by food proteins (it develops as an allergy to cottage cheese, porridge cooked in cow's milk, and nuts), both included in complementary foods and when these products are used by a nursing mother.
It manifests itself with the following symptoms:
- rectal bleeding (rare)
- the presence of mucus in the stool,
- the presence of blood in the stool.
What is an allergy?
Allergies in an infant or adult are a protective reaction of the body to an irritant. Irritant enters the body and, together with immunoglobulin E, causes reactions. The body recognizes the stimulus as alien and tries to remove it.
Signs of an allergy:
The most severe manifestation is Quincke's edema.
What allergy comes from:
- from contact with an industrial irritant (dye, resin, etc.),
- from dust and ticks,
- from contact with animals,
- from pollen
- from the poison
- from fungi
- from taking medication
- from food.
The reaction proceeds in mild, moderate or severe forms. Severe often leads to death due to swelling of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract.
Allergies are classified by contact with the allergen:
- Contact - by touching the skin.
- Respiratory - in contact with the mucosa.
- Food - if it enters the gastrointestinal tract.
- Nervous - under stress.
- Post-vaccination - for vaccines.
Allergies in an adult can be hereditary or acquired. In pediatrics, the concept of allergy is considered separately.
Why is an infant allergic?
Allergies in infants on the chest or elsewhere occur for various reasons. It was believed that reactions in infants are hereditary. Modern experts have changed their minds. It turned out that only in 30% of cases if the parents had itching after eating citrus fruits, then it will manifest itself in children. If a similar reaction haunts both parents, the probability is 60%. What is the main reason?
A great influence on the formation of the child is provided by the nutrition of the future mother. The use of a large number of possible allergens increases the risk of developing the disease. These are chocolate, citruses, nuts, exotic fruits.
Allergic itching or dermatitis appears in babies with weak immunity. The main cause of the violation is forced or voluntary abandonment of breastfeeding. The body is not able to defend itself. Therefore, with artificial nutrition, it is recommended to purchase hypoallergenic mixtures.
When using the product in large quantities, an allergic reaction occurs. Therefore, the baby's nutrition should be varied within the available limits. Parents need to monitor the quantity and quality of food.
What does an allergy look like in a newborn baby?
Symptoms of allergies in adults of newborns are different. In the latter case, they are more diverse. Although allergic reactions in all people appear in a very different way.
Symptoms of allergies in babies:
- abdominal pain,
- swelling of the mucous membranes,
- rectal bleeding. Mucus and blood in the stool
- red-pink rash. With or without itching
- itching, swelling, the appearance of crusts on the skin,
- peeling of the skin and the appearance of cracks,
- the appearance of rashes, bubbles,
- tear, swelling of the eyelids,
- runny nose, sneezing, sore throat,
It is necessary to deal with the symptoms of anaphylactic shock and Quincke's edema in more detail. These are dangerous conditions that require emergency care.
How is anaphylactic shock manifested:
- numbness in the face
- the appearance of cold sweat
- Quincke's edema,
- difficulty breathing
- the release of foam from the oral cavity,
- blue lips, blanching of the face,
- loss of consciousness.
What does Quincke's edema look like:
- swelling of the eyes, mouth, throat,
- genital edema,
- swelling of the face, swelling,
- enlargement of the eyelids, tongue, lips,
Important! Swelling of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract is fatal. Emergency medical attention required.
Food allergies in newborns often occur. Manifestations are different from contact irritation. An allergen appears after it enters the bloodstream. Therefore, symptoms do not appear immediately after a meal with a dangerous product. Before this, several hours pass. Parents can immediately understand that an allergen has entered the body. Even before a rash or redness occurs.
- Crying, anxiety, poor sleep.
- Lack of appetite.
- Subtle manifestations of a rash.
Further noticeable symptoms appear:
- rash, itching, redness,
- swelling of the mucous membranes. Runny nose, cough, conjunctivitis,
- peeling skin
- the appearance of scales on the scalp,
- diarrhea, vomiting, onset of gas,
- Ptek Quincke, anaphylactic shock.
The body often responds to food by urticaria. A pink rash appears on the body. Place of localization - face, hands. Itching is rarely added. It gets wet infrequently. Possible allergens: banana, nuts, chocolate, citruses. Eczema is manifested by itching, swelling, crusts.
Honey is a product that will cause a reaction of a newborn with a high probability. Therefore, it is impossible for the mother to use it while breastfeeding.
What foods can I breastfeed?
The contact form gives other symptoms. First irritations are noticed immediately. The reason is the interaction with household chemicals, dust, ticks, wool, hygiene products. In response to contact with an irritant, dermatitis appears. It is accompanied by a rash, peeling, dryness, burning, cracking.
Special attention should be paid to the reaction to diapers. Allergies should be distinguished from simple irritation resulting from prolonged wear. The reaction to chemical components is strong. It is accompanied by the appearance of bubbles filled with fluid, severe itching. It is difficult to limit the allergen. A similar situation occurs when interacting with household chemicals.
Allergies in a six-month-old baby and a younger baby may appear for a less common reason. The culprits of the disease are medicines. Not the medicines themselves, but the mothers, who uncontrollably feed the babies with antibiotics and other means of the babies.
With colic, constipation, disorders, I want to help the child, to alleviate his condition. Moms trust drugs. In an attempt to cure faster, they are used faster than they reach the pediatrician.
Uncontrolled medication plays a trick. They help the body fight. Do the work of the immune system for her. The result - natural defenses are reduced. Allergic reactions to food, coat, etc. appear.
How to determine what allergy is in infants?
When an allergy to a product in an infant is manifested, it is difficult to immediately understand what exactly became the cause. This is due to the diversity of the diet of the mother or baby. Mom should immediately limit the child from the stimulus.
How to handle it yourself before consulting a pediatrician:
- Consider a diet. Identify the products to which a reaction can be expressed. The list of probable allergens in childhood is extensive.
- If the skin is severely damaged. Inspect whether the child could have contact with household chemicals, hygiene products that were not previously used.
The exact allergen will be determined by the doctor. He will examine the rash, face and other parts of the body. Will gather the necessary information. Mom should remember what the six-month-old baby was eating, what foods were new, what they interacted with at home. It should be remembered that contact allergies occur immediately. Food - later.
The answer will be a blood test for immunoglobulins. After a year, skin tests are done. If there is no allergist in the city, they first turn to the pediatrician to help him find out why the rash, itching, etc.
Food allergies in infants occur on protein. It is found in breast milk, cow, goat. This is a difficult case, since it is difficult to completely restrict a newborn from dairy products. Full-fledged "adult" food is not yet available to him. With the advent of mixtures, the problem became solvable.
The reaction appears immediately after the protein enters the body or after 10-30 minutes.
- In the feces there are leftovers of milk. Remind cottage cheese.
- Frequent spitting up.
- Add blood in feces, in severe cases.
- Abdominal pain.
The newborn becomes restless against the background of violations, loses his appetite. With protein intolerance, the doctor prescribes a special diet.
Food allergies in infants appear due to the introduction of an artificial mixture in the diet. This is a reaction to soy, goat or cow milk. Less often - on cereals.
The problem is solvable. The pediatrician helps to choose a different diet. A variety of hypoallergenic mixtures helps parents cope with intolerance.
Violation appears as a normal food type of intolerance. These are problems with the gastrointestinal tract, bloating, colic, frequent spitting up. Depending on the allergen, they are looking for an alternative: sour-milk, soy, medicinal, lactose-free mixtures.
Switching to a new diet takes 14 days. Therefore, mothers have the opportunity to follow the reaction to a new product. All actions are coordinated with the pediatrician.
What should mom do?
With food and contact allergies in newborns, help is needed.
Mom must act quickly:
- identify the irritant and limit contact with it,
- empty the intestines of the newborn,
- create comfortable conditions for the baby,
- give an approved medication.
After the actions taken, it is worth visiting a pediatrician and an allergist.
Eliminating the allergen is the hardest part of first aid. The baby is able to respond to everything. But it is very likely that the stimulus is food.
How to act:
- to exclude the development of food allergies. Revise your baby’s diet or menu if he is no longer breastfeeding. Find out which product in most cases causes manifestation in children. Refuse strong allergens - fruits, fish, eggs, honey, oatmeal, pastries, cocoa. You should give your baby more water. You can not overfeed the newborn. This increases the risk of a reaction, worsens the manifestation,
- check the quality of toys, their cleanliness. Limit the baby from them,
- bathe a child with hygiene products no more than once a day. All products must comply with quality standards,
- check the composition of the fabrics from which the clothes of the newborn are made. Remove low-quality.
Timely bowel movement
To prevent the baby from feeling worse, empty the intestines. Without fail, this is done with a tendency to constipation. With the accumulation of feces in the body, toxins appear, they poison. The body becomes weak. There is a tendency to allergic reactions.
Advice! With the help of emptying, there is a chance to determine a possible irritant. Exclude milk that is not digested and remains in the form of cottage cheese in feces.
Mom should review her diet. A rare bowel movement leads to the accumulation of toxins, their ingestion into breast milk and the body of the newborn during feeding.
Creating a comfortable environment
When allergies occur in infants, comfortable conditions should be created.
- It is necessary to open access to fresh air. In this case, the air temperature in the room to keep comfortable - 20 degrees. In a hot room, the baby sweats. Become uncomfortable. When rashes, it causes discomfort.
- Allergies may occur in the dust. The room should be kept clean and tidy. A large number of soft toys - to anything.
- Clothing should be removed, even if the allergy is not contact. Rashes cause a lot of discomfort to the newborn. Contact with clothing intensifies irritation. And the use of low-quality household chemicals complicates the situation.
- It is recommended to maintain humidity in the room at the level of 50-70%.
Use of medicines
Medications are used with caution. But during severe rashes, redness, swelling, coughing, children need quick help. Drugs for the removal of toxins are selected with the clarification that they are not contraindicated at this age.
What groups of drugs are used:
- sorbents - remove toxins,
- antihistamines - block the action of the stimulus, relieve symptoms,
- local treatment creams - relieve itching, redness, swelling,
- hormonal ointments - are used only with the permission of a specialist.
Funds are prescribed only by a doctor, but if there is no way to go to him now, they are considering drugs without contraindications.
What is allowed to give kids:
- Fenistil - drops, give from 1 month of life. It has an antihistamine effect.
- Zirtek - it is allowed to use after 6 months from birth.
- Suprastin - suitable for the treatment of newborns.
How much does an allergy go through?
An allergy to food and other irritants in a baby will not go away quickly. This will take at least 3 days. Subject to the exclusion of the allergen, taking drugs. The term depends on the severity of the manifestations, the actions taken, the amount of irritant in the body.
It’s easier to prevent a disease than to treat it. It is recommended to take measures before problems arise.
What to do so that the child does not have allergies:
- maintain comfortable conditions in the room where the baby sleeps,
- clean in a timely manner (without adding chemicals),
- use high-quality clothing, household chemicals, hygiene products,
- start taking medication after the permission of the doctor,
- follow the diet. Remember that everything eaten by mom falls into breast milk,
- conduct medical examinations.
Allergies in newborns appear on food, tissues, household chemicals, dust. After the onset of symptoms, an irritant is identified, contact is limited with it, and authorized medications are taken. Be sure to visit a pediatrician.
Factors That Cause Allergies
The factor that can cause a negative reaction in a child is different. The most common option is food allergy. Moreover, products can be consumed by both infants and mothers. Do not forget that along with milk, every element of the food that the nursing mother ate gets into the body of the child. Therefore, it is important to monitor the diet during breastfeeding.
The following causes of allergies are distinguished:
Many children in the first weeks of life suffer from an allergic reaction. So, in the first 20 days after birth, a child has a rash on the skin. The reason for this phenomenon may be the hormones of the mother, which the baby receives in the womb. The body adapts to new conditions, resulting in small red spots on the face and neck. A similar rash passes through three to four weeks on its own.
Typical allergy symptoms, in addition to rashes, include redness, roughness and dryness of some areas of the skin. Additional symptoms are also highlighted, including green stools, coughing and sneezing, runny nose, and severe itching. Let us consider in more detail what an allergy in infants looks like.
How is allergy in infants
Diathesis in a child is a kind of protective reaction of the body in response to an irritant. Penetrating into the body of a small person with an imperfect immune system, the pathogen causes increased sensitivity to itself and forms the production of immunoglobulin E. This protein, in contact with the stimulus, triggers a chain of sequential reactions of the body. That is why there may be several symptoms of an allergy in an infant.
When breastfeeding, the baby's mother assumes great responsibility. After all, everything that a newborn comes into contact with and any products that enter his body can provoke an allergic reaction. The condition for the baby is not only unpleasant and unaesthetic, but also dangerous. The child may experience different types of allergies, but the mechanism of their formation is similar.
Allergies in a newborn may have other causes. These include drugs, heredity, the late onset of lactation and mixed feeding. Forms of the disease in infants are as follows:
- respiratory allergoses - affect the work of the respiratory system (both upper and lower sections),
- food allergy (Quincke's edema, urticaria, eczema, atopic dermatitis),
- anaphylactic shock.
Children under one year of age usually have atopic dermatitis, often urticaria, other diseases are rare, usually they occur at an older age.
Why is it dangerous for kids
Diathesis in a child.
Hypersensitivity of the human body to certain substances or products is a dangerous condition. When assessing the criticality of a pathology, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of its formation. In addition to external manifestations, allergies in newborns have internal ones. If spots, eczema appear on the baby’s body, swelling occurs, then you can only imagine what happens to the organs inside. The penetration of the irritant into the body of the crumbs can cause bronchospasm - a dangerous condition in which the child suffocates.
Another danger is the formation of a cross-reaction. Often, parents try to get rid of a baby rash with the help of folk methods. Bathing in a decoction of herbs or oral use of unconventional means can provoke a secondary wave of reaction, which will aggravate the condition of a small patient.
Food allergy in infants, according to Dr. Komarovsky, is caused by the excess intake of certain substances in the body. The doctor is sure that it is necessary to temporarily exclude the product from the diet or reduce its quantity. Then the baby will become easier, and his immune system in the future will be able to adequately respond to the stimulus.
Can there be an allergy to breast milk
When breastfeeding, an allergy in a child may develop due to the presence of irritating substances in breast milk. These include colored fruits and vegetables, chocolate, less often gluten. And even ordinary cow's milk. Since ancient times, it has been used to enhance lactation. However, numerous studies have led scientists to conclude that cow's milk does not increase breast milk. However, it can harm the newborn.
Recently, you can often hear a term such as an allergy to breast milk. It is a myth and another marketing ploy of artificial nutrition manufacturers.
There is no allergy to milk in infants. Maternal nutrition is completely suitable for the baby. With lactation, crumbs have a food allergy only to those substances that pass into breast milk. It is inappropriate to associate cow protein intolerance with a child’s hypersensitivity that occurs during lactation. Natural food has a completely different composition, and, therefore, forms a different food chain in the baby.
How to treat allergies in infants
The first thing parents need to do with unusual symptoms is to go to the doctor - an allergist or at least a pediatrician. Treatment of allergies in infants begins after examination, examination, compiling a clinical picture of the pathology. In some cases, emergency measures may be required aimed not at eliminating the allergen, but at eliminating the consequences of its work.To eliminate the disturbing syndrome, an integrated approach is needed:
- allergen exclusion
- dieting by mom
- normalization of digestive function in infants,
- use of antihistamines if necessary.
When does an allergy go away?
Rashes and redness of the skin begin 1-1.5 hours after interaction with the allergen. Intestinal food allergies occur within two days. That is why, nursing mothers, when introducing a new product into the diet, are recommended to observe the reaction of the newborn for two days.
How long does an allergy in a baby go through depends on several factors. First of all, this is contact with an allergen and types of reactions. If you exclude the pathogen immediately, then the reaction will pass in a few hours. But to eliminate the reaction to food quickly does not work, because it takes time to digest, the complete elimination of the product from the body and subsequent rehabilitation. Allergy symptoms after excluding the pathogen from the menu during breastfeeding will last another two to three weeks. Time depends on the amount of food taken.
The duration is also affected by the effectiveness and efficiency of treatment, the state of immunity. The stronger the immunity in children, the faster the body will cope with the disease.
How to recognize an allergy
To recognize an allergy and start treating it in time, you need to know how allergies manifest in newborns. Its main features include:
- Damage to the skin. This can be a different rash, dryness, peeling, swelling. Usually they appear in the face, neck, buttocks, in the inguinal and popliteal folds. Moreover, the degree of severity can be very different: from slight dry skin to the appearance of wetting wounds,
- Indigestion. In children with allergies, after feeding, there may be profuse regurgitation, colic, constipation or, conversely, diarrhea. As a rule, this is how food allergies manifest themselves,
- Respiratory manifestations are the result of a reaction to an allergen that is in the air (dust, animal hair, pollen). At the same time, the larynx and nasopharynx swells in the baby, it is difficult for him to breathe with his nose, lacrimation, coughing occurs. Very often, mothers confuse such symptoms with a common cold, but in case of allergies, the body temperature of the newborn will not rise,
- Anxiety. A newborn baby still cannot complain that something is bothering him. But, you can note that he began to sleep poorly, constantly acting up and showing concern.
Allergic conjunctivitis, rhinitis have similar manifestations with inflammation of the eyes and nose, but only of an infectious nature. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between allergic and infectious respiratory disorders.
Common signs of their development include nasal congestion, sneezing, burning and itching in the nose, lacrimation and redness of the sclera.
But with colds, in most cases, the body temperature rises, weakness occurs, the baby can refuse to eat, be lethargic and lethargic.
After two to three days with infectious rhinitis, mucous secretions are replaced by purulent ones; this does not happen with allergies. An important distinguishing feature is the fact that the symptoms of a cold decrease after a week and gradually completely disappear.
With allergies, all manifestations can stay at the same level or increase until the effect of allergens is eliminated. The stopping of signs of pathology occurs quickly and when taking antihistamines.
How to help baby
When an allergic reaction occurs in a child, parents immediately ask themselves what to do and how to treat. A rash on the skin, which manifests itself in the first weeks due to the hormones of the mother, will pass on its own. Treatment in this case is not necessary. Do not remove or treat red spots with cotton swabs! This will lead to the spread of spots on the skin throughout the body.
If the allergy is not caused by hormones, then treatment should begin with a diet. Eliminate allergenic foods from your diet. You can not take various means and preparations for children, since self-medication can only aggravate the condition of the child! To determine the form of allergies, consult your doctor. Only a specialist can prescribe the right treatment!
Hypoallergenic Nursing Mom Diet
The mother of a child with an allergy to breastfeeding should review her diet:
- exclude cow protein if there are intestinal manifestations of lactase deficiency,
- refuse gluten contained in pasta and most cereals,
- remove sweets, nuts, animal products, some vegetables and fruits from the diet for skin manifestations in a baby.
More detailed individual recommendations to a nursing mother will be given by a doctor.
Causes of food allergies in children
Allergy is the response of the human immune system to certain substances. They are not dangerous, but for some reason the body perceives them as alien and actively fights them. Allergies in children occur for various reasons:
- The state of the immune system. A lot of external factors affect the child’s body, some of them cause an immune response.
- Heredity. If parents suffer from allergic reactions, the likelihood that they will appear in children is very high.
- Bad environmental conditions. It's no secret that the state of the environment, especially in cities, leaves much to be desired. This cannot but affect children's health. By the way, allergic children growing in villages and villages are much smaller than in the city. This fact is explained by the fact that rural children from an early age have contact with a huge number of potential allergens (animal hair, bird fluff, plant pollen), to which the body responds adequately.
- Intrauterine factors. Hypoxia during pregnancy, an abundance of strong allergenic substances in food, smoking, the use of alcohol and drugs (we recommend reading: the consequences of smoking during lactation). All these factors extremely negatively affect the fetus and provoke various disorders.
What causes allergies in children:
- Any food can provoke such reactions. Chicken eggs, cow's milk, chocolate, nuts, soy, fish, seafood, citrus fruits, pineapples, honey, mustard, red fruits and vegetables, beef, coffee, etc. are considered the most allergenic. The immune system reacts negatively to foreign protein contained in products.
- Medicines Theoretically, any drug can cause allergies, but the most dangerous ones that contain sweet syrup or herbal ingredients. Often there is such a reaction to antibiotics and vitamins. That is why many medicines for babies come in the form of candles.
- Contact allergy is caused by contact of the baby's skin with certain substances. Usually it is children's cosmetics, synthetic materials, creams and soaps.
- Household allergies. It is caused by dust, wool and saliva of pets, chemicals for cleaning the house or washing dishes, washing powder, etc.
- Seasonal Allergy Occurs on pollen, poplar fluff. Insect bites can also provoke such reactions. Bees and wasps are especially dangerous, their bites cause severe swelling. As a rule, such an allergy is combined with honey intolerance. An allergic reaction to sun and cold occurs.
Rashes on the face of a baby primarily indicate food intolerance. The body of crumbs skin changes reacts to new foods, the changed composition of breast milk.
In addition to rashes on the face, other symptoms of the disease can simultaneously occur, affecting the digestive system, respiratory system and changing the overall well-being of the baby.
How to help a child with allergies:
- A hypoallergenic diet that doctors advise every mother to use in the first 1-1.5 months of lactation. Such a diet will reduce the risk of an allergic reaction and help to cope with an already appeared ailment. Read about the principles of nutrition with a hypoallergenic diet at https://vskormi.ru/mama/gipoallergennaya-dieta-dlya-kormyashhix-mam/,
- Often the cause of food allergies is cow protein. Eliminate similar foods from your diet, especially cow milk. Famous pediatrician Komarovsky does not recommend drinking cow's milk while breastfeeding for 4-6 months from the date of birth of the child,
- Keep a perfect clean in the house. Remember that dust is the strongest allergen that can cause various diseases and complications. In case of allergies, it may be necessary to remove soft toys, carpets and fur covers from the premises that collect dust in large quantities,
- Wash things at high temperature with hypoallergenic soap or powder and rinse thoroughly. Laundry is washed at least twice a week. Choose blankets and pillows with a hypoallergenic synthetic filler. Often, an allergy in a newborn appears due to feather bedding,
- With artificial or mixed feeding, an allergy in a newborn can be due to an incorrectly selected milk mixture. For adverse reactions, use non-bovine hypoallergenic products. How to choose the right mixture, read the article "Rules of mixed feeding."
In case of allergies and the child in no case do not stop breastfeeding! After all, it is breast milk that forms and strengthens the immune system, which is able to quickly deal with an allergic reaction. Only mother's milk saturates the body of children with necessary vitamins and useful elements in full.
Remember that allergies are a disease. Therefore, if you find symptoms, consult a doctor immediately. He will prescribe tests that will help identify the allergen. After excluding the pathogen, the symptoms of the disease decrease and gradually disappear.
It is strictly forbidden to start self-treatment and use medicines! Only a specialist will choose the right drugs that will quickly cope with the disease and will not harm the baby. There are various remedies for children.
Dermatitis also manifests as skin symptoms. Atopic dermatitis caused by a genetic predisposition. Its exacerbations provoke not only food or household allergens, but also familiar physical and chemical factors.
Photo: The manifestation of contact allergy to latex in infants (on the adhesive plaster used to seal the hernia). Photo by: Amanda Kern
In other words, it is allergic to cold, to sunlight, to tobacco smoke, sometimes even to water (very, very rare).
Contact dermatitis develops in response to contact of the allergen with the skin. Its manifestations are similar to those with atopic dermatitis and are:
- peeling skin
- the appearance of cracks.
These symptoms are unpleasant for the child, so he becomes moody, restless, tearful, and may refuse to eat.
Improving bowel function
Diathesis in newborns can occur due to untimely bowel cleansing. The cause is the accumulated toxins and harmful substances. The work of the digestive tract of mommy also plays an important role, the chair should be daily. Often after childbirth, this becomes a problem, and with the manifestation of hemorrhoids - completely disaster.
The diet and the use of laxatives, for example, based on lactulose (Dufalac), will help normalize the digestive system during breastfeeding. In order to cleanse the body of toxins, you can take Polysorb, Smectu, Enterosgel to a nursing mother. Physical activity improves intestinal motility, and heavy drinking makes feces softer and facilitates the process of emptying the digestive tract.
How does a food allergy manifest in an infant?
Along with food, allergens enter the intestines, where they are absorbed into the bloodstream and cause characteristic symptoms. Allergy makes itself felt from various organs and systems. The reaction appears 1-2 hours after contact with the substance or accumulates gradually with prolonged exposure and will manifest itself after a few days. With contact allergies, the reaction is noticeable immediately.
How to understand that a newborn baby has an allergic reaction, because he still can not talk about what is bothering him? What signs should parents pay attention to, including older children? Symptoms of an allergic reaction are the same for everyone:
- the child often cries, is naughty, does not sleep well,
- he has a bad appetite,
- rashes appear on the body that can itch or get wet,
- a rash on the face, mainly around the mouth and on the cheeks,
- mucous membranes swell - allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, coughing,
- the skin is peeling
- yellowish scales form on the head,
- redness in different parts of the body,
- diarrhea, vomiting, excessive gas formation, frequent spitting up,
- Quincke's edema, anaphylactic shock with a strong reaction of the body to an allergen.
So, we have come close to the appearance in the baby of allergic reactions that are not related to food. In the vast majority of cases, their cause lies in heredity and constant contact with the allergen. Most often, the reaction of the body can cause:
- dust and dust mites,
- animal hair
- pollen of plants
- household chemicals,
- children's cosmetics.
To find out what specifically caused the allergic reaction, the doctor performs skin tests. To do this, one or another suspected allergen is applied to the baby's skin and monitor the reaction. If after a certain time the skin has not changed, go to the next possible "culprit" ... and so on until an allergen is detected. After all this, the task of the mother is to find a way to isolate the baby from contact with the allergen and to choose the optimal drug accompaniment.
A separate point I would like to note the allergic reaction of the baby to diapers. In this case, the rash is a small spot with redness, itching, swelling, which invariably causes a lot of questions from parents. The first thing to do is to exclude diaper dermatitis, which manifests itself with a rare diaper change, and the factor of mechanical irritation (uncomfortable velcro and elastic bands). In other cases, allergies may occur due to:
- the use of cheap diapers from substandard materials or fakes,
- frequent diaper brand changes,
- additional components in the composition of diapers (chamomile, aloe).
Get rid of allergies, pick up a healing ointment and switch to Huggies - diapers with natural 100% cotton and hypoallergenic porous materials that allow your baby's skin to breathe.
Let's try to identify an allergen
An allergist will need to establish an accurate diagnosis. The doctor must make sure that the child is really suffering from an allergy, and not another disease with similar symptoms (for example, infection with helminths or a malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract). What methods are used to make a diagnosis:
- Inspection and questioning of parents - when there are signs of what they are expressed in, whether there is a dependence of their appearance on the use of any products or contact with substances.
- A skin test will determine which substance the baby's body responds to. Various allergens are applied to the skin with a sharp medical instrument, and in case of allergy, after a certain time, edema or redness appears in this place. How allergic tests are performed can be seen in the photo.
- A blood test shows the level of immunoglobulin and the presence of antibodies.
A skin test is done for children from 5 years old. However, she does not always give an answer, what exactly caused the reaction of the child’s immune system. The analysis reveals the most common allergens (eggs, milk, fungi, bacteria, fish, bee and wasp venom, etc.), and theoretically, an allergy can appear on anything. In this situation, parents are better off relying on their own observations of the condition of the baby and carefully consider the preparation of the diet.
A skin test for allergens is a fairly expensive test.
Prohibited drugs for newborns
There are a number of powerful drugs that quickly remove negative symptoms and are quickly eliminated from the body. However, for babies and young children, they carry a serious risk. These drugs include:
- Diprazine and promethazine,
- Diazolin and omeril,
These drugs are addictive and have serious side effects for children. They disrupt the functioning of nerve cells and coordination in movements, cause inhibition and dizziness, lethargy and apathy. May cause poisoning.
First of all, the effect of allergen crumbs on the body should be excluded. If the newborn eats mother’s milk, then the woman should only temporarily use hypoallergenic products.
Means for skin care of the baby, powders, soap should be selected marked "Hypoallergenic".
Do not forget that the clothes of an adult should be washed only with baby powder and thoroughly rinsed.
This is due to the fact that the baby is always pressed with his cheeks to home clothes and the remaining components of household chemicals can provoke the appearance of rashes on the face.
The overall well-being of the baby and the condition of its skin largely depends on the microclimate in the room. With any type of allergy, doctors advise, as often as possible, to do wet cleaning and ventilate the room.
In the children's room there should be no dust accumulators - carpets, blackout curtains, a large number of soft toys.
Medication is prescribed by a doctor, the following groups of drugs are usually prescribed:
- Antihistamines. Under the influence of these medications, swelling and itching pass, the number of rashes decreases. Children of the first year of life are prescribed drops of Fenistil, a single dose of three to 10 drops, the drug is prescribed twice a day. You can also use Suprastin ¼ tablets 2 times a day. But you must always remember that safe medicines and the course of their administration can only be chosen by experienced doctors.
- Enterosorbents. Babies can be given activated carbon at the rate of one tablet per 10 kg of weight. If the crumbs have a weight of less than 5 kg, then give half a tablet of activated carbon. This drug neutralizes the action of allergens and promotes their removal from the body.
- Ointments are used to lubricate places with a rash and redness on the face. For babies, the use of Bepanten, Gistan, Skin-Cap cream is well suited. Ointments are applied to previously cleansed skin with a thin layer, this must be done twice a day.
It is not forbidden to use alternative methods in addition to drug treatment. On reddened cheeks, lotions with a decoction of a string, chamomile can be applied, with weeping spots, a decoction of oak bark helps.
The baby must be given as much as possible to drink, which speeds up the elimination of accumulated toxins.
Cow's milk protein allergy
This type of pathology occurs in almost 6% of children in their first year of life. Moreover, almost 90% of children under 5 years of age completely get rid of intolerance to cow's milk.
The main causes of intolerance to milk protein from a cow include:
- Immaturity of the digestive system,
- Stressful situations. Frequent development of intolerance to milk protein is noted if it is introduced into the diet during vaccination, with the development of respiratory diseases, with overheating of the crumbs,
- Quick transition from breastfeeding to artificial formulas.
Symptoms of the disease are very diverse. Half of the babies have skin changes, manifested by allergic dermatitis, a rash in different parts of the body, swelling of the lips and eyelids.
Other babies in cow's milk react with frequent spitting up, colic, nausea and even vomiting. In rare cases, intolerance to the product is manifested by rhinitis, wheezing in the chest, cough.
To the mixture
One of the most common problems of toddler parents is the artificers. Sometimes parents have to try several different baby formulas before they find a well-tolerated baby.
The main reason for the development of intolerance to the mixture is cow's milk protein and whey.
It is these components that are considered highly allergenic, and they are often used as the basis for the product.
But the pathology in crumbs can also develop for any other types of baby food, including hypoallergenic mixtures.
In these cases, it is necessary to establish exactly which component is the allergen and then select food without this ingredient.
Intolerance to the mixture in infants manifests itself as skin rashes, and enteritis, as well as constipation. The rash is primarily formed on the folds of the arms, abdomen, legs, buttocks. In severe cases, the disease manifests itself as shortness of breath, poorly healing dermatitis.
In case of allergies, the baby is prescribed a medicine aimed at eliminating the clinical manifestations of the pathology. All drugs can be taken only on the recommendation of a doctor in a certain age dosage. The list of acceptable allergy medications for newborns is not so large:
- drops of Fenistil (from 4 weeks of life),
- Zyrtec or Zodak drops (from 6 months),
- Suprastin tablets. This drug is used as a last resort, so it depresses the nervous system.
Additionally, sorbents (Smecta, Polysorb, Filtrum, Enterosgel) are prescribed for the baby to remove the allergen from the body. Forbidden drugs for infants include: Diphenhydramine, Clemastine, Diazolin, Tavegil and most tablet forms.
Seven Ways to Avoid Allergies
Everyone knows that the disease is better to prevent than to treat. Begin allergy prevention from the very birth of the baby. The following actions will help to avoid the disease:
- Hypoallergenic diet during the first month of breastfeeding,
- In the second month after the birth of the baby, gradually begin to introduce new products and carefully monitor the well-being of the baby for two days. In case of a negative reaction, postpone the administration for at least four weeks,
- Follow the principles of nutrition of a nursing mother. Drink more fluids; do not eat foods with preservatives or other chemicals. In the first months, avoid brightly colored fruits and vegetables. Introduce raw fruits not earlier than 4-5 months. Eat soups and broths, boiled and baked food. Avoid too fatty and sweet, salty and fried foods.
- Keep breastfeeding as long as possible. Remember that breast milk is the best disease prevention in young children,
- Observe hypoallergenic life, which includes daily wet cleaning, the absence of animals and flowers, the use of hypoallergenic hygiene products, household items (powders, etc.) and natural materials (clothes, bedding, etc.),
- Do not take medicines and do not give medicines to babies without urgent need and without consulting a doctor,
- Lead a healthy lifestyle with your baby. Do gymnastics for children and often walk in the fresh air. And swimming with the baby will temper the body, strengthen the immune system, and avoid diseases and infections.
Nursing mother should not forget about her own health. Proper nutrition, exercise, a healthy lifestyle will positively affect the well-being of the baby.
Allergy to diapers and household chemicals
Special attention (as a common cause of an allergic reaction) deserves an allergy to diapers. It is manifested by a rash on the priest, on the back and legs, in the genital area. The reason may be, firstly, poor-quality materials, and secondly, a special gel with which the diaper is impregnated.
The resulting rashes look like this: small, up to 2 mm in diameter, inflamed vesicles filled with fluid often itch.
Manifestations of skin allergies to washing powder and other life. chemistry is different - it can be both urticaria, and eczema or contact dermatitis.
Additives can cause this reaction: phosphates, optical brighteners, flavorings.
If you use ordinary powder to wash children's clothes, an allergy in a child will arise with a 95% probability, but even using the most hypoallergenic children's powder does not reduce it to zero.
The main reason for food allergies in babies who eat only mother’s milk is allergenic foods that are part of the woman’s diet.
The child can respond to rashes, intestinal upsets, regurgitation, anxiety, poor sleep with fish, citrus fruits, vegetables and fruits with bright colors, honey, convenience foods with flavorings and other additives.
Medicines for external use
In the treatment of skin allergies, the use of oral medications, supplemented with external agents, is recommended. The child may be prescribed one of the drugs:
Hormonal drugs Advantan, Elokom and others are prescribed in critical cases and are not used for allergies in a newborn's face.
In addition to the above, skin allergies can also cause allergies to medications.
A feature of this reaction is the vastness of the manifestations.
It is important to know that with an allergic reaction to drugs, severe symptoms are possible, up to anaphylactic shock. You will learn about them below.
When traveling with children on a trip or on a picnic, be sure to put antihistamines - Fenistil, Zodak, Zirtek, etc. in the first-aid kit. They will help both in case of a mild allergy and as first aid for Quincke's edema before the arrival of emergency medical care.
This pathological condition rarely appears in children who have never suffered from allergies. As a rule, edema develops when there have already been reactions to various substances, and is expressed by severe swelling of the mouth, larynx, genitals. Ears, lips, eyelids and tongue increase in size, temperature rises. Vomiting, paralysis, seizures are sometimes possible.
The mortal danger is that the child may suffocate. Similar signs accompany anaphylactic shock. Foam from the mouth, cyanosis of the lips, numbness of the face are added to them. It is important in the first minutes of the onset of symptoms to give the child any allergy remedies at hand and call an ambulance. Fortunately, such conditions are rare, but allergic parents need to know how to provide first aid to the child in such situations.
Buckwheat is considered hypoallergenic and that is why babies begin to expand their diet.
Buckwheat allergy occurs for several reasons, and not always the main one is intolerance to the cereal itself.
In the event that buckwheat is purchased in the boxes for the baby, various porridge additives become a provoking disease.
Often, symptoms of the disease also occur in buckwheat with the addition of milk. You can talk about a true allergy only when the symptoms of the ailment occur after eating self-cooked cereal without adding butter, sugar and other additives.
With buckwheat intolerance, a newborn first develops dyspeptic disorders - diarrhea is replaced by constipation, the baby is cramped.
Buckwheat intolerance can also be manifested by a rash on the body and cheeks, redness of the skin around the mouth, swelling of the lips, tearing and rhinitis.
Allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis
For allergens such as animal hair and saliva and dust, allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis usually develop. An allergy to plant pollen is called hay fever. They are characterized by:
Photo: Dr. Komarovsky writes that he thinks about the relationship “an animal at home - an allergy in a child” (can be increased)
- swelling of the eyelids,
- conjunctival edema,
- redness of the eyes
- runny nose
- sore throat,
- a feeling of fullness in the nasopharynx (in a child it is manifested by anxiety and refusal to eat).
Many mothers are interested in how allergies to cats and dogs in infants are manifested. It is especially important to know this information for allergic parents.
Some doctors believe that children who have been in contact with animals since they were born are less likely to be allergic to them.
However, dear mothers, it is worth considering that this is not 100% protection against allergic reactions.
The kid cannot say for himself what is bothering him, so you need to carefully monitor his condition. If the child rubs his eyes, they watery, the whites of the eyes turn red, he has a runny nose, a dry cough, dark circles appear under his eyes - it is worth considering the likelihood of allergies to pets.
You should remember about such a thing as an allergic march - if the disease is not treated in a timely manner, it can develop into more serious forms up to bronchial asthma.
The choice of antihistamines in the pharmacy is very large. The attending physician will determine which drug is suitable for your child, and select the right dosage:
- Suprastin. In addition to the main action, it also has an antiemetic property and relieves spasms. This tool has been developed for a long time and has a number of side effects - it causes drowsiness, palpitations, dry mucous membranes, and headache. Allowed for children up to a year.
- Diazolin. Also a first-generation drug. It has a sedative effect. Assigned to children from a year.
- Zirtek (we recommend reading: how to use Zirtek for newborns?). The drug is a new generation. Available in drops. It does not have a sedative effect and is approved for use from 6 months.
- Fenistil. Available in drops and in gel form. When applied topically, it relieves itching and redness. It can be used for children from 1 month.
- Psilo-balm. Relieves redness and swelling. Used in children from 2 years.
- Diphenhydramine. This is a very powerful tool, so it is used for children (including newborns) only in critical situations as directed by a doctor.
In addition to antihistamines, the doctor will prescribe enterosorbents, with the help of which allergenic substances are removed from the body.
For food allergies, doctors must prescribe Enterosgel Enterosorbent with a course to eliminate allergens. The drug is a gel saturated with water. He gently envelops the gastrointestinal mucous membranes, collects allergens from them and removes them from the body. An important advantage of Enterosgel is that allergens are firmly bound to the gel and are not released in the intestinal calving located below. Enterosgel as a porous sponge absorbs mainly harmful substances without interacting with beneficial microflora and microelements, so it can be taken for more than 2 weeks.
Sometimes a cleansing enema is required. With nasal congestion, vasoconstrictive drops (Vibrocil, Nazivin) can be instilled.
Lactose is a complex carbohydrate from the group of disaccharides, found mainly in dairy products.
To break down lactose, a special enzyme called lactase is needed.If this enzyme is not enough in the baby's body, then an allergy to lactose develops.
Enzyme deficiency can be congenital or occurring as a complication after an infectious disease.
In the latter case, the lactase level is restored after recovery.
With lactose intolerance in infants, the following symptoms occur:
- Cramping abdominal pain
- Increased flatulence leading to severe bloating,
- Loose stool
- May be vomiting and fever.
Usually, signs of intolerance begin to appear about half an hour after consuming milk, cottage cheese, and cheese. If the baby is not given dairy products, then his health will normalize within two to three days. More information on this topic can be found here https://allergiik.ru/lactose.html.
Treating a child with alternative medicine without a doctor’s prescription is not worth it, because many medicinal herbs themselves are strong allergens. Self-medication can lead to severe allergies.
Folk remedies relieve skin symptoms, relieve itching. Well help baths with a decoction of celandine, string, chamomile or calendula. However, you can take such baths every 3 days so that the baby does not have excessive dry skin. You should start with one herb to determine if there is an allergy to it. Time gradually increases from 5 to 15 minutes.
You can wipe with decoctions of medicinal herbs - bay leaf, hypericum, peppermint, oak bark. The broth should not be too steep. Treatment of the affected areas will relieve inflammation, heal the skin, remove peeling.
Baths with a specific set of anti-inflammatory herbs will relieve allergy symptoms
On the eggs
Chicken egg is very useful for a growing organism, but it is considered the second product after cow's milk according to the degree of allergenicity.
Most often, intolerance to the body provokes an egg protein containing albumin. With a tendency to allergies to albumin, antibodies begin to be produced in the baby's body.
In most cases, egg intolerance that occurs up to one year goes away by about five years. Intolerance to the yolk of a chicken egg occurs much less often, so egg feeding is started from it.
Egg allergy is manifested by intestinal disorders, urticaria, nasal congestion, and wheezing. With egg intolerance, diathesis often occurs, diaper rash and itching of the skin appear.
Diet as a prerequisite for treatment
With food allergies, it is very important to follow a diet. Without it, no drugs can save the baby from the symptoms of the disease. What foods can be consumed by a child:
- Rye bread,
- cereals - buckwheat, corn, rice,
- meat of chicken, turkey, rabbit,
- cauliflower, zucchini, broccoli (see also: is it possible for a nursing mother to eat broccoli with guards?),
- green apples
- butter, low-fat dairy products,
- olive, sunflower oil,
- dried fruits and compote from them, wild rose.
Excluded from the menu: chicken eggs, cow's milk, honey, coffee, chocolate, fish, red fruits and other allergenic foods. This also applies to the diet of a nursing mother, if an allergy occurs in a newborn.
Food should be steamed or in the oven, stewing is allowed. No need to add spices to it. Products should be fresh, preservation should be excluded from the diet. So that the baby receives all the necessary vitamins and nutrients, make up a full menu together with a nutritionist.
When the baby is just starting to receive complementary foods, you need to be especially careful about the manifestations of allergic reactions to new products. Mom is best to keep a food diary, where she will write down every day all the new products that her child receives.
Allergic children should not be given complementary foods before 6 months. If the pediatrician insists on complementary foods due to insufficient weight gain, it is better to start with hypoallergenic products: mashed potatoes from zucchini, cauliflower, buckwheat and corn porridge (for more details see: what are hypoallergenic infant formulas?). A new product should be given in the morning so as not to miss the symptoms of allergies, and always start with half a teaspoon. For the first time, potentially allergenic food should be introduced from 7-8 months (meat, eggs, kefir).
Severe systemic reactions - rare, but possible
The danger lies in the fact that when a drug (insect venom) enters the body, especially parenterally, due to the continuous flow of its large volumes, not just dermatitis or urticaria, but Quincke's edema or anaphylactic shock can occur.
Photo: Allergic reaction to penicillin in the form of urticaria on the baby’s body
Symptoms of Quincke's edema:
- swelling of the mucous membranes (eyes, mouth and throat),
- genital edema,
- swelling, some hardening of the skin of the face,
- an increase in the size of lips, eyelids, ears, tongue,
Symptoms develop suddenly, within a few minutes (much less often - hours). If the edema spreads to the brain, neurological disorders develop - epipressures, paralysis, etc. The main danger of this reaction is airway obstruction due to edema, asphyxiation.
Symptoms of anaphylactic shock:
- signs of anxiety, fear (crying),
- numbness of the face and lips,
- cold sweat,
- Quincke's edema,
- shortness of breath, bronchospasm, asphyxia,
- foam from the mouth
- cyanosis of the lips,
- loss of consciousness.
In the event of these symptoms, you should immediately discontinue contact with the allergen, call an ambulance and try to give your child an antihistamine (you can crush the powdered tablet “Suprastin”, “Tavegil”, “Claritin”).
How long does it take for symptoms to go away?
In the question, after how long does the allergy in children go, it all depends on the health of the child, the degree of damage and the allergen that caused the reaction. In some babies, the symptoms are easily treatable and disappear in 3-5 days, while others suffer for months, and their condition is difficult to treat.
Food allergies in infants are adjusted by the diet of a nursing mother. In the maternity hospital, she is given a list of products that are forbidden to be consumed in the first months (coffee, chocolate, fish, red fruits must be excluded). Potentially allergenic food should be introduced into the diet no earlier than 7-8 months. Much of the treatment depends on the parents - whether all the doctor’s recommendations are being followed, whether the child is receiving the prescribed medications, or if he is using illegal products.
Differential diagnosis is a medical term that implies:
- preliminary diagnosis
- identification of similar diseases
- the rationale for why a particular patient has the alleged disease, and not some other.
Such an allergy diagnosis in infants should be carried out with intolerance to products, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (if we are talking about food allergies), prickly heat, skin diseases, and other emergency conditions (anaphylactic shock - an epileptic seizure, etc.).
How allergy manifests itself in infants, we have already described above. Consider a few more diseases.
Differentiate NGG (Immediate Gastrointestinal Hypersensitivity) and food intolerance impossible at home. The difference between them can be detected only with the help of laboratory tests: immunoglobulins, immune proteins, are necessarily involved in NGH, and the immune system is not involved in intolerance.
Allergic proctocolitis is different from inflammatory or infectious bowel disease the fact that children look completely healthy, gain weight well. Blood loss with this pathology is minimal, it does not change the blood picture (anemia), there is no weight loss, dehydration, no pain. The main difference from all other diseases of the digestive tract is in mandatory contact with a specific allergen.
Photo: Sweating on the baby’s body
Sweating is very similar to an allergy, but the latter arises as a result of improper or insufficient skin care in the area of the folds - on the neck, between the buttocks, in the groin, and also does not depend on contact with the allergen.
Anaphylactic shock and Quincke's edema rarely develop "in the midst of complete health" in children who have never suffered from allergies. Usually parents are aware of the problem and are ready to provide first aid to the child. In any case, the symptoms are vivid and occur after prolonged interaction of the reaction-causing substance with the child's body, whether it be an injection or an insect bite.
One way or another, a child should not be diagnosed independently. If you suspect an allergy (as well as any other disease), you must consult a pediatrician who, having examined, will diagnose and give his recommendations.