Most likely, many have noticed an unpleasant metallic taste in their mouths. It appears most often after brushing your teeth with a brush or when biting off solid foods.
If you spit a little saliva at this moment, then an admixture of blood will be found in it or it will turn out to be painted red.
This fact is a clear signal that a person suffers from bleeding gums. A similar problem requires immediate action. Indeed, very soon it can become significantly worse and lead to more serious troubles.
For example, to weaken the gums and the formation of tooth mobility with subsequent loss.
What causes bleeding?
Treatment of almost any disease should begin with the identification and elimination of the root cause. Bleeding gums are no exception.
- The most common cause of bleeding gums is improper oral hygiene. This may be the use of an inappropriate toothbrush, insufficiently thorough or incorrect brushing, the use of toothpicks and so on.
- Tartar formation. Without preventive measures, over time, it grows and begins to separate the gum from the teeth, thereby causing bleeding.
- Lack of vitamins in the body. Of course, vitamin deficiency affects all human organs, with the exception of the gums,
- Incorrect installation of dental crowns andimplants.
- Gum disease: periodontitis, periodontal disease, gingivitis and others.
There are other possible causes for this problem. Only the dentist can identify the nature of such a disease.
The dentist will tell about the causes of bleeding gums and the solution to the problem:
What is the cause of bleeding gums?
There are two main causes of bleeding gums that can be eliminated on their own at home: mechanical damage to the mucous membranes and non-compliance with the rules of oral hygiene. In the first case, patients encounter a problem during brushing after changing a toothbrush. The stiff bristles leave scratches on the gums from which the blood oozes. Also, mucous membranes can be injured when chewing or cracking rough foods (crackers, nuts, etc.).
If a person neglects the advice of dentists and does not pay enough attention to oral hygiene, then over time there is a smell from the mouth and plaque on the teeth, which gradually hardens. Tartar presses on the mucous membranes, separating soft tissue from the crown and causing bleeding. Thorough flossing using dental floss will help solve this problem.
Among the other reasons that cause gums to bleed are:
(we recommend reading: what to do if gums bleed after brushing your teeth?)
- gum disease
- endocrine disorders,
- lack of vitamins
- doctor’s mistake in the provision of dental services,
- fungal and viral etiology diseases,
- hormonal disbalance.
All the main causes of bleeding gums
To know how to treat bleeding tissue, it is necessary to establish the cause of the condition. Normally, it should not occur.
The main factor why gums become inflamed and bleed is the vital activity of pathogenic microflora. It can appear with diseases of the oral cavity, inadequate hygiene, injuries and burns.
Gum bleeding factors:
- periodontitis, gingivitis, some forms of stomatitis,
- periodontal disease and the accumulation in the periodontal pockets of pathogenic bacteria,
- the result of various gum injuries - burns with food and hot drinks, alkalis, acids and chemicals,
- insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals, in particular, ascorbic acid and rutoside, poor nutrition,
- hormonal changes, often occurs during pregnancy,
- autoimmune diseases
- endocrine system diseases affecting the healing of tissues, in particular diabetes mellitus,
- alcoholism, smoking, the use of toxic substances,
- undesirable effects of medication
- oral candidiasis,
- a consequence of some viral infections,
Another reason gums bleed heavily is an allergy to dentures and filling material.
Blood from the gums also appears with improper cleaning, poor-quality orthodontic designs.
It is widely believed that increased bleeding gumsis a consequence of the use of toothbrushes with very stiff bristles. However, if the gums are completely healthy, then brushing your teeth will not cause the appearance of blood. Of course, you need to brush your teeth carefully, especially if the gums are too sensitive. With increased sensitivity, it is better to choose a toothbrush with soft bristles.
However, in no case should you ignore brushing your teeth. Even if a person is periodically worried about bleeding, refusing daily brushing will only worsen the condition, as this will contribute to the development of inflammatory processes and reproduction bacteria. As a result, bleeding will only increase.
It is very important to determine why the gums are bleeding, and pain appears, and try to eliminate this cause. Very often, this phenomenon is associated with improper care of the oral cavity, with smoking, the habit of poking around in the teeth. Mentioned factors often lead to the development of unpleasant diseases - gingivitis, periodontitis. To prevent them, at the first signs of bleeding, you should consult a dentist who will establish a diagnosis and prescribe an effective treatment regimen.
Symptoms of the onset of gum disease are:
✔Gums that bleed at the time of eating food, and gums that are behind the tooth.
✔Teeth that for no reason begin to stagger, and persistent unpleasant odor that comes from the oral cavity.
As soon as a person begins to notice these symptoms, he urgently needs to see a dentist.
Causes of gum bleeding -
If you are interested in the mechanism of how poor hygiene and gum disease lead to bleeding, then it looks like this. Bacteria of plaque and stone secrete a large number of toxins and various pathogens that trigger a chain of inflammatory reactions in the gums. In particular, this leads to an increase in the permeability and fragility of capillaries (which is why blood appears when brushing your teeth), as well as to swelling, redness, or cyanosis of the gingival papillae.
In parallel with this, the desquamation (desquamation) process of epithelial cells of the gum mucosa is intensified, which leads to thinning of the epithelium. The latter further reduces the resistance to mechanical stress, weakened by inflammation of the gums, for example, when brushing your teeth or chewing solid food. Therefore, when together: 1) fragility and increased permeability of capillaries, 2) thinning of the epithelium + 3) even a completely normal mechanical load, this ends with blood when brushing your teeth.
By the way, a very frequent symptom associated with gum bleeding is pain when brushing your teeth. The mechanism of its development is also associated with a thinning of the epithelium of the gingival mucosa and a decrease in the resistance of the gum to mechanical stress. And the conclusion that needs to be drawn from the foregoing is that treatment should not be tied to combating a particular symptom of bleeding, it should be to eliminate the main cause of gum disease, i.e. removal of microbial plaque and tartar.
Predisposing Factors for Gum Bleeding –
If bleeding does not occur for the first time, this indicates that your gum disease is chronic and lasts quite a long time. In this case, blood while brushing your teeth can either appear or disappear again. Usually gums bleed only with exacerbations of chronic inflammation. An exacerbation of the inflammatory process most often occurs in the offseason and is associated with a decrease in immunity or the development of vitamin deficiency.
But we do not want you to think that it is poor immunity or vitamin deficiency that are the causes of exacerbations of gum disease and bleeding. The cause is still plaque bacteria. It's just that local protective factors in the oral cavity (against the background of a decrease in immunity) - cease to cope with the previous volume of toxins and pathogens secreted by microbial plaque on your teeth. Other predisposing factors may be oral breathing and xerostomia, which increase the amount of plaque in the oral cavity.
Treatment of bleeding gums at home can be carried out using medicines or folk remedies. The maximum effect can be achieved with an integrated approach to the problem. In addition to taking medication, you need to pay more attention to oral hygiene regularly, using rinses, essential oils and rubbing agents (we recommend reading: what is the opinion of doctors about rinsing the mouth with oil?). Pharmaceutical preparations and medicinal plants will relieve inflammation and disinfect the oral cavity. It is important not only to brush your teeth regularly, but also to rinse your mouth every time after eating.
How to treat gum bleeding at home
To get rid of bleeding, it is necessary to establish a provoking factor. Depending on it, medicines are selected to reduce symptoms, rinses, care items. Prevention measures are recommended to reduce the incidence of blood flow and relapse.
Concomitant treatment of gum bleeding with folk remedies is possible with the mandatory observance of the rules of care.
When bleeding is not associated with gum disease -
Sometimes the appearance of blood when brushing your teeth may not be associated with plaque and gum disease. For example, an exception may be local bleeding in the area of 1-2 teeth, which occurs due to trauma to the gums overhanging the edge of the fillings or crowns. In this case, the elimination of the traumatic factor immediately leads to the elimination of symptoms.
Hormonal changes in women during pregnancy can also cause bleeding gums. According to statistics, up to about 50% of pregnant women suffer from an edematous form of hypertrophic gingivitis, in which there is a persistent increase in the volume of the gingival papillae + bleeding when touching them. However, bleeding gums during pregnancy is not exclusively hormonal in nature.
In particular, an increase in the volume / height of the gingival papillae leads to a “purely mechanical” increase in the depth of the tooth-gingival pockets. Usually they are no more than 2-3 mm, but with an increase in the size of the gingival papillae, the depth of the gingival pockets also increases, which prevents their natural self-cleaning and creates conditions for the propagation of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, in pregnant women, there are usually two causes of bleeding, as a rule, and in order to exclude the microbial factor, it is necessary to carry out additional cleansing of the gingival pockets with an irrigator.
Rinsing the mouth with clean water, as a rule, is part of daily oral hygiene and is carried out at least twice a day. But it is recommended to resort to it not only in the morning and in the evening during brushing, but every time after eating. If for these purposes it is not simple water that is used, but special decoctions and solutions, then the procedure will take on a healing character.
Rinsing not only cleans the teeth of the remaining pieces of food, but also has a strengthening effect on the gums, reduces redness, irritation and pain.
For the treatment of bleeding gums, you can use the solutions available on the market in almost any pharmacy. All of them are divided into anti-inflammatory and antiseptic.
The action of the first is aimed at reducing gum inflammation, reducing swelling, redness and pain. These include the following tools:
- Stomatophyte Fresh,
- Forest Balsam
- Perio-Aid et al.
The second are designed to prevent the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and their destruction. And this prevents further deterioration and prevents a more severe course of the disease. These tools are:
Unlike solutions aimed at reducing inflammation, antiseptics should be used in certain courses (from 10 days to a month). They can not be abused, as they destroy not only pathogenic bacteria, but also beneficial ones. And this violates the normal microflora in the oral cavity.
Pharmacy ointments and gels
Today in pharmacies you can buy a lot of tools that can have a therapeutic effect on the gums. Many gels and ointments are very effective, but are considered the best:
- Gel Holisal Dental. The medicine relieves inflammation, eliminates bleeding gums, has an antimicrobial and analgesic effect. The therapeutic effect occurs after 2 minutes. after application. The remedy is indicated for stomatitis, gingivitis, periodontal disease and other gum diseases.
- Metrogil Dent. The active substance is chlorhexidine and metronidazole. The medicine disinfects the oral cavity, relieves swelling and inflammation. It acts superficially and quickly relieves bleeding and pain. It is applied several times a day to the cleaned surface of the mucous membranes.
- Kamistad. The gel quickly eliminates pain due to lidocoin in its composition. After application, it feels temporary numbness in the mouth. Chamomile extract has a weak anti-inflammatory and disinfecting effect. Not recommended for frequent use.
Improper oral care
Blood from the gums can come as a result of injury to their hard bristles of the toothbrush. Very often, causes of bleeding gums are associated with injury to toothpicks and other foreign objects. When a person has a bad habit of picking his teeth, pathological gingival pockets form gradually around the teeth. A variety of microorganisms begin to accumulate in them, from which the inflammation is aggravated, and small vessels are destroyed even more actively. As a result, it is developing bleeding. Therefore, often the answer to the question of why blood flows during brushing is extremely simple.
In addition, if you brush your teeth irregularly or do it wrong, this will contribute to the appearance of tartar. It moves the tooth away from the gums, which causes blood to flow.
External causes of bleeding gums
✔Often smokers gums begin to bleed due to their interaction with tobacco and other smoking mixtures.
✔A poorly fixed denture can also cause mechanical damage to the gums.
✔Too quick and rough brushing with aggressive toothpastes and bristles with a rough pile can easily cause gums to bleed. To get rid of the consequences, you need to completely review the technique of brushing your teeth. Dentists recommend starting to brush your teeth from the gums to the tips of the teeth. Toothbrush should be chosen with a softer pile, but not too much.
✔Tartar is also able to harm the gums, so if you can clean the stone, do not lose it.
List of recommendations what to do if bleeding gums:
- as prescribed by a specialist, use antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs,
- twice a day, if a different frequency is not indicated in the dentist’s recommendation, apply ointments and gels to the disturbing areas,
- 3-5 rinse the mouth with special means with antiseptic effect,
- take multivitamin complexes for bleeding,
- to choose a brush and paste for hygiene that do not injure fabrics.
Note! If a bleeding problem occurs, it is necessary to establish the causes and treat the underlying disease, for example, gingivitis. This will get rid of the symptom and achieve a lack of relapse of the appearance of blood.
How to make a correct diagnosis -
If you have bleeding gums - its causes and treatment will be interconnected, and this means that the amount of treatment needed will greatly depend on the type of gum disease (gingivitis or periodontitis), of which it is a symptom. The final diagnosis will be made by your doctor, but in most cases, distinguishing between these 2 forms of gum disease is quite simple.
For example, with gingivitis, in addition to soreness and bleeding of the gums when brushing your teeth, there is swelling, redness or cyanosis of the gingival margin, accumulation of soft plaque and / or tartar in the neck of the teeth (Fig. 1-3). What can not be with gingivitis is the mobility of the teeth, periodontal pockets with purulent discharge, a strong exposure of the roots of the teeth. If you have such symptoms, this already indicates the presence of chronic periodontitis, i.e. a much more serious gum disease.
What gums and teeth look like with periodontitis -
Important : gingivitis is the very initial stage of gum disease, and if improperly treated, it will inevitably turn into periodontitis (in which the bone tissue around the teeth begins to gradually dissolve, which leads to their mobility). The conversion of gingivitis to periodontitis always occurs in those patients who have been treating bleeding gums for years at home - exclusively with various rinses, ointments and anti-inflammatory toothpastes.
Without removing the causative factor for gum disease (i.e., dental deposits), all of these can only temporarily drown out the symptoms of inflammation. At the same time, inflammation will not go anywhere, and will proceed more asymptomatically until the destruction of the bone tissue around the teeth becomes so large that their mobility appears. Therefore, if you want to treat gum bleeding only by means of advertising on TV - without removing dental deposits and normalizing oral hygiene, then pay attention to the photos of such patients in Figs. 4-6.
If bleeding is caused by gum disease of an inflammatory or infectious nature, in this case, the use of special dental gels is recommended:
- Metrogil Dent et al.
If the problem arose as a result of improper oral hygiene and the use of a toothbrush with very stiff bristles, then preventive toothpastes are suitable
When treating gums, you should not be limited to traditional methods of treatment. Folk remedies relieve bleeding no worse than special dental preparations. Their main advantage is naturalness. They do not harm the body because they do not contain any chemical additives. The recipes are easy to make. Natural components can be prepared independently or purchased ready-made raw materials in a pharmacy.
The use of a number of medicines
Some drugs can also provoke bleeding. This is mainly about blood thinners. As a rule, such a thing as bleeding gums is indicated in the description of the side effects of the drug.
To provoke such a phenomenon can be a medicine so familiar to many as Aspirin. The same effect can cause Warfarin, Heparin, Clopidogrelsome NSAIDs. Basically, this symptom disappears after the end of the course of treatment with these drugs.
Internal causes of bleeding gums
✔Taking some doctoral medications can cause gums to bleed.
✔Pregnant women whose hormones change during the gestation period are also prone to gum disease.
✔The lack of vitamin C and K, which helps the blood in the human body to clot, is also one of the causes of hemophilia of the gums.
If you do not see the problem in time, it will grow and can reach such a scale that the patient simply loses his teeth.
If the gums hurt, there are concomitant pathologies and bleeding, anti-inflammatory antiseptics are prescribed. They are presented in the pharmacy with lozenges:
- Grammidine Neo
- Gramicidin C,
They fight against pathogens of diseases of the oral cavity, eliminate complaints, are included in the comprehensive treatment of bleeding to improve the quality of life of the patient.
If the state of bleeding is caused by gingivitis, stomatitis, tonsillitis and other infections, a wide range of antibacterial drugs are prescribed by the dentist. Also, these drugs complement the treatment of chronic, constant blood flow.
Bleeding gums: treatment
As we said above - the causes and treatment of bleeding gums are interconnected, and the most important thing you should do is to remove the dental plaque. The second important step is the course of anti-inflammatory therapy. And if such therapy, especially with gingivitis, can be successfully carried out at home, then to remove dental deposits, you still have to go to the dentist. Below we will talk in detail about the preparations and procedures ...
In the treatment of bleeding gums, folk methods are quite widely used. In terms of effectiveness, they are practically not inferior to special dental rinses.
But unlike them, they are completely natural, safe and can be used for quite some time.
Traditional medicine recommends rinsing the oral cavity with decoctions or tinctures of medicinal plants. The list of them is quite wide, the most common are:
- oak bark.
Significant popularity in the treatment of bleeding is a decoction made from oak bark.
This tool has an astringent effect, can strengthen the gums and relieve bleeding.
To prepare a medicinal decoction, 1 tablespoon of bark needs to be filled with 200 ml of boiling water. Then boil the mass over low heat for 5-7 minutes. Insist the resulting broth for 2-3 hours, strain. It must be used to rinse twice a day for at least 10-14 days (can be longer).
Decoctions of herbs such as chamomile, calendula, sage, yarrow are made using the same technology. A tablespoon of grass should be filled with a glass (200 ml) of hot water.
Cover the container and let it brew for at least 30 minutes. The resulting product needs to rinse the oral cavity, if possible after each meal, but at least 2 times a day.
Decoctions and infusions of herbs for rinsing
Rinses help to disinfect the oral cavity, get rid of the unpleasant odor and at the same time improve the patient's state of health. Medicinal plants not only have antiseptic properties, they have analgesic, decongestant and hemostatic effects. For many centuries, people have studied the beneficial properties of plants and have widely used them to treat various diseases. The experience gained indicates that decoctions and infusions of herbs for rinsing are effective.
It is worth noting that not all folk recipes for the treatment of gums can be used for bleeding. To avoid burns of the mucous membranes, do not rinse your mouth with alcohol tinctures. Many experts advise cleaning the mouth of food debris every time after eating. You can rinse your mouth with plain water, and treat gums better with special solutions:
|Name of the medicinal plant||Healing properties||Cooking method||Multiplicity of application (once a day)|
|St. John's wort||It has a pronounced bactericidal effect, contributes to the rapid regeneration of damaged tissues.||20 g of dry raw material is poured 1 tbsp. vodka. The resulting mixture is insisted 7 days in a dark place. A rinse solution is prepared by adding 20 drops of the resulting tincture in 0.5 cups of water.||2|
|Oak bark||Fights pathogenic microflora. Tannins, interacting with proteins, create a protective barrier on the gums.||The bark should be crushed, then 1 tbsp. l pour a glass of boiling water. Simmer the resulting mixture for 6 hours.||2|
|Inflorescences of a camomile chemist's||It has a powerful wound healing and hemostatic effect. Relieves inflammation, eliminates bad breath (recommend reading: gum disease and bad breath: causes of pathology and ways to eliminate it).||2 tbsp. l dry herbs pour boiling water. Insist 20 minutes||2–3|
|Nettle||It is rich in vitamins. It has a general strengthening effect. Vitamin K increases blood coagulation.||2 tbsp. l brew raw materials in 1 tbsp. boiling water.||2–3|
|Sage||A powerful antiseptic to cope with a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms.||1 tbsp. l pour leaves with a glass of hot water, insist for half an hour, strain.||1–2|
The best result can be achieved if you combine plants, creating your own recipes. For example, you can take in equal proportions St. John's wort grass, fortified red wine, oak bark and pour the resulting mixture with vegetable oil. After the medicine is infused for 10 days, it is sent to the oven for 2 hours. The resulting remedy helps get rid of bleeding in 2 days.
A deficiency in the body of certain vitamins is very strongly displayed on the gums (mainly bleeding manifests itself against Vitamin B, K, C,E) Therefore, such a sign can provoke diets, leading to a lack of these vitamins. To the development of characteristic bleeding (scurvy) leads to a deficiency in the body of vitamin C. If this disease develops, the person is also concerned about other characteristic manifestations - numerous bruises on the skin, swelling. Gradually, the teeth become loose, with the development of the disease, they can fall out. Also, the disease is negatively displayed on the internal organs. Having established the diagnosis, the doctor often prescribes vitamins for teeth and gums to the patient.
Gums bleed - what to do at home. 10 tips
Having clarified the causes of gum disease, it is allowed to return to the problem of treating bleeding gums. If blood discharge is small, you can turn to household treatment. With therapy in domestic conditions, a positive result can be achieved through an integrated approach to the elimination of the problem.
You can try different methods, because one person will help, perhaps, something that did not help the second patient.
Methods may be such as:
1 Treatment of the inflammatory process in the oral cavity with the help of pharmacy medicines.
2. The use of specialized anti-inflammatory gels.
3. Treatment with alternative medicine.
4. Switching to proper nutrition or diet.
5. Particular attention to oral hygiene.
6. Go to the dentist, as needed.
7. The use of professional toothpastes, powders and flosses, which are recommended by dentists.
8. Rinsing the oral cavity with various traditional and non-traditional means.
9. Taking a complex of vitamins that help restore gums.
10. The exclusion of tobacco and other smoking mixtures, as well as seeds and food products, which can mechanically damage the gums.
If you decide to seriously address the issue of bleeding gums, we recommend that you pay attention to the gels for treating the oral cavity. In the drugstores of your city, you can buy drugs called "Holisal", "Kamistad" and "Asepta". These gels are suitable for the prevention of bleeding gums, they cool them, relieve pain and inflammation.
In any case, it is recommended that you visit a dentist before using them, turning to him for a consultation. Only after examining the incisors and gums, the doctor will be able to decide on the appointment of toothpaste and other medicines that are right for you.
Ointments and gels for bleeding gums
One of the measures to be taken if blood comes from the gums is to apply special ointments and gels to the affected tissues with a clean finger or a cotton swab. Drugs have a variety of actions: some eliminate the symptom itself, others act on the cause.
- Metrogil denta - contains two components that have an antibacterial effect. It is used for dental diseases - gingivitis, periodontitis, leading to bleeding.
- Solcoseryl (gel, ointment or dental paste) is used as a concomitant for the healing of gums, has an analgesic effect.
- Kamistad - is used to eliminate microorganisms that provoke bleeding of the gums and reduce unpleasant symptoms. For the same purpose, Holisal gel is used. The second medication further improves blood circulation, eliminates swelling of the gums, anesthetizes well.
- Lincomycin is an antibiotic-based ointment that affects the pathogen.
- Apident-active ointment is based on natural components (extracts of medicinal herbs, bee venom and propolis), eliminates pain, bleeding from the gums and signs of inflammation.
- The Asept Parodontal series contains antiseptics, propolis and fights against bleeding symptoms, pathogens, and is effective in inflammatory and infectious processes in the mouth.
1. Removal of dental plaque -
To remove dental deposits during bleeding, it is optimal to use ultrasonic brushing. If you have gingivitis or if there are not too many deposits, then usually one visit lasting 40-60 minutes is enough. The most difficult to remove subgingival dental deposits with periodontitis, because in this case, they are localized in periodontal pockets below the gum level. The lack of good visual control makes it difficult to find and remove them, and will require several visits to the doctor.
I’ll tell you right away that a very rare dentist will bother with you to look for subgingival dental deposits from you. And therefore, if with gingivitis (in which there are only supra-gingival deposits) - you can get quality service by contacting a regular dentist or hygienist, then with periodontitis it is best to consult a periodontist. This is what dentists who specialize in gum disease are called.
How to remove dental deposits by ultrasound: video
The choice of toothpaste, toothbrush and rinse aid
The most common cause of bleeding gums is improper brushing. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the means used in this case.
In any pharmacy you can find specialized pastes aimed at strengthening the gums. Most of them contain extracts and extracts of medicinal herbs. They have a calming and healing effect. There are funds of imported and domestic manufacturers:
- Lacalut asset
- SPLAT Professional Active,
- Pres> An important point: with inflammation and bleeding gums toothpastes with a whitening effect are contraindicated. They can only aggravate the situation, increasing irritation.
If the gums are bleeding, then hard toothbrushes should be discarded.But using brushes with soft bristles is also not recommended, since they are not able to clean the teeth and the holes between them to the right degree.
It is better to get a toothbrush of medium hardness. It will help prevent injury to soft tissues and will cope well enough with the resulting plaque.
In combination with special toothpastes, the use of mouth rinses based on medicinal herbs is recommended. They have an additional anti-inflammatory, healing and soothing effect.
Means for rubbing in gums and lotions
If the gums hurt and bleed heavily, you can make applications or relieve inflammation by rubbing the product into the gum tissue (see also: what to do if the gums bleed in one place?). Well heals wounds infusion of calendula flowers. It is prepared by brewing a handful of dried flowers with hot water. The resulting infusion is wiped with gums.
You can make lotions using a sage broth. To do this, a bandage or cotton swab is moistened in a decoction and applied to an inflamed area. Sage is not only able to fight the infection, it also relieves pain and inflammation.
To strengthen the gums should make night applications of onion juice with the addition of aloe juice. This tool will stop bleeding, strengthen blood vessels and protect against bacteria. Also for this purpose, you can take the juice of radish and unripe walnuts.
After a visit to the dentist, bleeding gums can also occur. If the patient has a tooth removed or an implant is installed, this leads to injury, due to which blood flows. Provided that the orthopedic design was not properly fitted or was poorly made, it will constantly injure the edge of the gum. Sometimes this happens after fillings. Also, this phenomenon may be associated with professional brushing.
With bleeding gums, the body must be saturated with the missing vitamins and substances. You should carefully review your diet. Try to exclude harmful, fatty, spicy foods. You need to eat foods rich in vitamins, proteins and minerals.
Phosphorus plays an important role in the strengthening process, legumes are very rich in it. In addition, the body needs vitamins C, B, PP, E, K. And they are found in vegetables, fruits, various grains, nuts, fish, lean meat.
The use of vegetables, especially when fresh, not only enriches the body with necessary vitamins, but also provides additional stimulation of the gums and brushing your teeth.
All of these methods of treatment can only alleviate the condition and reduce bleeding. But only a specialist can identify the true cause of the problem.
Therefore, at the first opportunity, you need to visit the dentist for diagnosis and the appointment of appropriate treatment.
Toothpastes to strengthen the gums can be bought at any pharmacy. Toothbrushing using specialized pastes allows you to relieve swelling and soothe the gums. Among the most popular brands are:
In the case of bleeding gums, the Lacalut Aktive paste is considered the most effective (we recommend reading: good remedies for bleeding gums). It quickly stops symptoms, stops bleeding and reduces tooth sensitivity. Use this toothpaste on a regular basis should not be.
A variety of blood diseases can also provoke bleeding in the oral cavity. We are talking primarily about pathologies of the coagulation system - thrombocytopenia, hemophilialack of body vitamin K. Also, this symptom may indicate the development of tumor processes - leukemia, leukemiain which the condition of the mucous membranes often worsens.
This tool is able to eliminate the problem of bleeding gums. It is enough to rinse your mouth regularly with a decoction based on oak bark, you can buy it at any pharmacy in your city.
For 0.5 liters of water, you need to take 2 tbsp. oak bark, put the mixture on fire, and boil for about 10 minutes. After the broth is ready, it needs to be filtered. Only after this can you start rinsing your mouth. Two or three times a day for half a cup of decoction of oak bark, here is a recipe for healthy gums.
When bleeding gums, one of the treatment measures is choosing the right toothpaste. For oral care, it is better to use special products:
- Asepta periodontal,
- Lacalut asset
- The president.
More affordable pastes for bleeding gums - Forest Balsam with oak bark, Splat Asset, Periodontal.
It is advisable to supplement them with a similar action rinse. Toothpastes eliminate bleeding gums, help strengthen the effect of drug treatment, reduce discomfort.
It is vitamin deficiency that is the main cause of bleeding gums. The symptoms of vitamin C deficiency are especially pronounced. In this case, the blood vessels become brittle, bruises appear throughout the body, and internal organs suffer.
Many dental diseases, including gum bleeding, are closely related to human nutrition. Food should be balanced, rich in vitamins, macro - and micronutrients. To preserve the health of teeth and gums, you need to eat meat, fish and dairy products. With bleeding, it is better to refuse fatty and spicy foods. The menu should contain vegetables and fruits.
If the cause of gingival bleeding is a lack of vitamin C, prescribe Ascorutin or injections of vitamin C into the gums. Vitamin K helps increase blood coagulation.
Often bleeding develop due to the development of inflammatory processes in the oral cavity. This symptom is characteristic of periodontitis, gingivitis, periodontal disease and other diseases. The main signal for a visit to the dentist should be the regular appearance of blood while brushing your teeth - in such a situation, consult a doctor should not be postponed.
In domestic conditions, you can cook rinses based on sea salt. To do this, 1 tbsp. dilute salts in a glass of boiled water. Rinse your mouth a few times all day.
In its pure form, many rub the sea salt into the gum itself. It relieves inflammation, strengthens the gums themselves and stops the blood.
Gum bleeding vitamins
If bleeding gums is caused by a lack of vitamins, vitamin complexes should be taken. In particular, vitamin C and rutin, which strengthen the walls of blood vessels, reduce their permeability and fragility. In large quantities, these substances are contained in the drug Ascorutin.
Another complex of vitamins and minerals - Complivit Russian manufacturer. It contains calcium and phosphorus, which strengthens bone tissue and teeth. It is also a source of rutoside, ascorbic acid, necessary for healthy vessels, and other elements for the whole body.
Similar properties have another multivitamin complex Bio-Max. It is created specifically for people who live in the central region of the country.
Especially for eliminating bleeding gums in pharmacies, the vitamin-mineral complex of Asept is presented. It supports the health of the oral cavity, strengthens tooth enamel and gums, improves overall immunity. It is a source of coral calcium, vitamins C, B3, B6, A, D3, coenzyme Q10 and green tea extract. Coenzyme and tea extract fight gum bleeding. Additionally, they prevent the development of the inflammatory process, accelerate the healing of damaged tissues, strengthen them and have a bactericidal effect.
When should I contact a specialist?
Any of the above methods of treatment does not eliminate the cause, but only the symptoms of the disease. Only a doctor can establish an accurate diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment.
If the gingival tissue bleeds occasionally, and all the unpleasant symptoms quickly disappear after the use of medicines or folk remedies, then there is nothing to worry about. Another thing is when the gums bleed constantly, weakness occurs, an increase in temperature is noted. In this case, you should immediately seek medical help. Long periods, nosebleeds, hematomas on the body can indicate the presence of serious, life-threatening diseases. It is impossible to cure them at home.
4. Toothbrush for bleeding gums -
If brushing causes severe bleeding, soreness and a desire to abandon hygiene altogether - it is best to use a special gentle toothbrush with soft bristles during treatment (marking - Soft). But remember that it is undesirable to use such a toothbrush constantly, because soft bristles remove plaque somewhat worse. And therefore, after the inflammation subsides, it is advisable to start brushing your teeth again with a medium hard brush with the marking Medium.
Examples of brushes with soft bristles -
St. John's wort
The inflammatory process in the gums can be removed using a decoction of St. John's wort. 1 tablespoon of grass should be poured with a glass of boiling water, let it brew for 30-40 minutes Then rinse.
Almost every home has a plant like scarlet. Not many people know that the juice of this flower can help cure many diseases. To get rid of gum disease, you need to tear one leaf of scarlet, peel it from the thorns, cut it in half and apply it to the diseased gums. To feel the desired relief, 5-7 such procedures are enough. Agree, this is really a magical plant.
This is gum disease, in which swelling and swelling of the area affected by the pathological process develops. The patient appears plaque on the teeth, both soft and hard. In these places, the concentration of microbes is noted. The reasons for the development of gingivitis are improper care of the oral cavity of smokers, since smoking reduces the level of Vitamin C in the body and worsens the condition of the mucosa. Gingivitis may develop in the background diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, sore throats, fluand etc.
In more rare cases, this disease is the result of chronic injury to the gums with orthopedic structures or fillings. Since the development of pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity is activated with gingivitis, durable deposits appear on the teeth, eventually turning into tartar. Most often, this disease is diagnosed in young people and children. Gingivitis can be viral, bacterial or fungal.
Folk remedies for bleeding gums
Using traditional medicine methods is a simple and cheap way to get rid of bleeding gums. For this, sea salt, baking soda and various herbs for rinsing and massage the gums are used.
Note! Folk remedies for bleeding gums can not be used as the main treatment. They help reduce symptoms without affecting the triggering factor.
5. Teaching oral hygiene -
After removing all dental plaque, the doctor should teach you how to brush your teeth. Otherwise, dental deposits will appear again within a few weeks, and again you will suffer the same symptoms. Remember that the best remedy for bleeding gums is proper quality oral hygiene, including regular use of dental floss after each meal.
This ailment is associated with the development of the inflammatory process of the dental ligament, in which there are a lot of blood vessels. At periodontitis Not only bleeding, but also loosening of the teeth is worrying. Since the nutrition of the alveolar edge of the jaw is deteriorating, there is a redistribution of the chewing load on the teeth, they begin to wear out actively. Gum injury occurs.
With periodontitis, tissues near the teeth become inflamed, and the alveolar process of the jaw can gradually collapse. In addition, over time, the so-called gingival pockets appear, where pus and plaque accumulate. As a result of this, the teeth are loosened, the teeth are exposed. Both acute and chronic course of the disease are possible. If you do not take the necessary measures, then the dentition gradually diverges, becoming like a fan, and the teeth fall out.
It is sold in a pharmacy in dry form, packaged in 50 or 100 g or in filter bags. Used for rinsing. Has astringent effect, stops bleeding.
For the preparation of a solution of 2 tbsp. l or 1 filter bag is poured into 500 ml of water and boiled for 10 minutes, then filtered. For rinsing use a cooled, warm solution. Frequency of the procedure: 2-3 times a day for 5-7 days.
Plantain is able to treat inflammation. In the summer, it is very simple to prepare the leaves of this plant and make a healing infusion from them. This will require fresh plantain juice. During the winter, the infusion can be prepared from previously dried leaves.
If you wash the plantain leaf well, you can even chew it whole as a gum prophylaxis, and then spit it out. After three days, you can already notice how the gums stopped bleeding and began to look much healthier.
If a person is concerned about bleeding, then a visit to the doctor is important and from the point of view of the need to exclude such a dangerous disease as periodontal disease. With this disease, dystrophic processes prevail over inflammatory ones. With periodontal disease, gums may bleed and your teeth will loose. This disease can progress over time. To diagnose it, you need not only a thorough examination of the dentist, but also an x-ray.
This is a classic remedy for fatigue, irritability, and now also for bleeding gums. In order to relieve inflammation in the oral cavity, chamomile is often mixed with calendula. The infusion is prepared by taking one spoonful of chamomile and calendula flowers, pouring them with a glass of boiling water and insisting for about half an hour.
Why bleeding gums during pregnancy?
Expectant mothers, among other complaints about changes in the body during of pregnancy, they often ask the doctor what to do if the gums hurt and bleed. Such a problem at this time is by no means uncommon.
Bleeding, which occurs when gum disease develops during pregnancy, is associated primarily with hormonal changes characteristic of the period of gestation. An imbalance of hormones affects the general condition of the body, including the health of the gums. They become more loose, quickly inflame, and bleeding often appears at the first unsuccessful touch.
In most cases, treatment during pregnancy does not require this condition; only extreme accuracy is needed. After all, after childbirth most often all unpleasant symptoms gradually disappear.
However, every woman planning a pregnancy is better to visit the dentist ahead of time to determine if there are foci of inflammation in the oral cavity. If available, the doctor will prescribe medications to eliminate such manifestations.
But even if the expectant mother took care of the methods of prevention, she can still be bothered by bleeding from the gums during pregnancy. Most often, this symptom appears at about 4 months of gestation. To improve the condition of the gums and reduce such manifestations, expectant mothers are recommended to follow these recommendations:
- Eat well and do not practice diets. After all, poor nutrition can harm both the mother's body and the baby.
- You need to brush your teeth after each meal, and carefully remove the leftover food between the teeth using dental floss.
- Rinse your mouth regularly with infusions and decoctions of herbs that act as antiseptics.
- It is best to use toothpastes with an anti-inflammatory effect. These are pastes of "Asept", "Prodontax", "Lacalut".
If bleeding is associated with the appearance of tartar, then when it is removed, a number of important points should be taken into account:
- It is best to go to the dentist in the second trimester.
- The doctor should carry out manipulations for the shortest possible time.
- Ultrasound removal of tartar is not allowed.
- You must make sure that the doctor uses in the process only those drugs that are approved for use during pregnancy.
How to deal with bleeding gums?
If the gums are constantly bleeding, what to do, it is best to ask the dentist at the appointment. Only a specialist can clearly determine why the gums are bleeding, and how to treat them.
However, even when the gums are very bloody and sore, some measures taken independently can help to cope with this condition.
A cheap tool used to rinse the oral cavity has several medicinal properties. This method of traditional medicine allows you to stop the inflammatory process, save a person from discomfort, pain, discomfort, itching.
For use, dilute in a glass of warm boiled water 1 tsp. soda.
And if gums bleed during pregnancy - what to do
Each girl who experienced childbirth, most likely, watched how unstable her emotional state was. Many girls act like heroines
soap operas, their behavior is whimsical and capricious at the same time women in labor are prone to frequent tears. So bleeding gums should not be another stress for a pregnant woman.
And bleeding in the gums is just the first bell that inflammatory processes begin in the mouth, which sometimes, unfortunately, are irreversible.
If you do not pay the necessary attention to this problem in time, then the usual gingivitis during pregnancy can take a more acute form.
Each infection in the mother’s body can reflect on the child’s health status. In pregnant women of the weaker sex, diseases form much sooner than in those who do not carry a baby under the heart. Unfortunately, if a woman does not cure gum bleeding in time, this can also appear on the baby.
Doctors have long proved that in the case of the "start" of the disease, the child will appear with a small weight. More likely to be more difficult consequences, for example, premature birth and fetal loss.
Modern medicine provides an opportunity for expectant mothers, without harm to the child, to treat the health problems that have arisen. The main thing is to remember that when visiting a dentist, he must be informed that you are expecting a baby.
Ways to solve the problem of bleeding gums:
✔The inherent use of foods containing vitamin C, B, K, E.
✔Adding to the diet a variety of spices that will stall the increase in the number of microbes in the oral cavity.
✔Upscale dental therapy.
✔Therapy of incisors and gums in the home using dental powders, mouthwashes, antiseptics and tablets,
✔Also, do not ignore the unconventional methods described above.
It is recommended that pregnant women of the weaker sex, in the presence of a problem, go to the dentist at least once a month. Doctors should monitor the patient’s health to prevent the spread of germs.
Why bleeding gums when brushing your teeth - how to treat
Inflammatory sensations in the gums are in themselves unpleasant. It is doubly nasty if bleeding occurs due to such a process. When we brush our teeth, there is also the possibility of mechanical damage to the gums. That is why, most often, in healthy people, blood from the gums suddenly starts to ooze.
How are we used to brushing our teeth? First of all, this happens in haste. Few of us stand for half an hour by the mirror in the bathroom and thoroughly clean each incisor with a toothbrush.
Few people use dental floss exactly after eating and, of course, not everyone rinses their mouth with various means: both pharmacy and folk. Bacteria gradually accumulate on the teeth near the gums, and the process of inflammation begins.
Touching on the topic of proper brushing, it should be noted that there are certain rules by which you need to clean your teeth from recent food debris and potential fertile soil for the reproduction of microbes. By sticking to them, you will probably get rid of bleeding gums forever.
The correct position of the brush should be such that the bristles move from the gum to the tip of the tooth. If so cleaned, the brush will never damage the gum.
In the case when the gum was damaged, you need to stop brushing your teeth and rinse them with a special tool, and then go to the doctor as soon as possible.
Damage to the gum can also be a poor-quality toothbrush and its rough bristles. Having such a brush, whether it wants to or not, a person will harm the gums.
If you find such a brush in your bathroom, immediately replace it. It is important to pay attention to the tool with which you brush your teeth, it is best to buy it, before consulting a doctor.
Gum can be treated by the methods described previously. In alternative medicine, there are many decoctions and tinctures based on medicinal herbs that will relieve inflammation, remove bleeding and temporarily soothe a toothache if it appears.
It is important to balance nutrition. The menu should contain a sufficient amount of protein food. This will help strengthen not only the gums, but also immunity generally. When the body receives a sufficient amount of protein, periodontal tissue and mucous membranes will regenerate more actively. It is especially important to eat fully during pregnancy. Those for whom the question of how to strengthen the gums, if they bleed, is relevant, should include the following products in the menu:
- Foods That Contain A Lot Vitamin C. This will help protect the oral mucosa from infection, strengthen blood vessels and reduce the severity of inflammatory processes. A large amount of ascorbic acid contains: cabbage, greens, raspberries, potatoes, celery, currants, tomatoes, citrus fruits, etc.
- Products with vitamin b. This vitamin helps strengthen the gums and teeth, prevents the appearance of ulcers and cracks in the oral cavity. Many B vitamins contain: dairy products, beef, apples, buckwheat, oatmeal, eggs, rye flour.
- Food with plenty vitamin K. This vitamin improves blood coagulation. Its greatest amount is found in cucumbers, soy, dairy products, spinach, bananas.
- Products with vitamin E. It accelerates the healing of the mucosa, reduces the sensitivity of the gums. Legumes, dairy products, bread, cod, corn, etc. contain a lot of vitamin E.
- Fresh juices. Another correct answer to the question of what to do if the gums are bleeding is to prepare fresh juices. Fresh squeezed juice from carrots, as well as beetroot juice, will strengthen them most effectively. You need to drink such drinks in the morning, before breakfast. True, beetroot juice is recommended to withstand for several hours in the refrigerator before use. After that, you can mix it with fresh carrots and drink throughout the day in small sips.
- Spices. Various spices - sesame, wasabi, cinnamon will help eliminate the strong fragility of the gum vessels. Sea salt is also beneficial. Spices also help to suspend the process of bacterial reproduction, remove plaque and prevent the development of the inflammatory process.
If the gums are bleeding, what to do at home can also “tell” certain folk recipes. You can use these tools for almost everyone, as they resist inflammatory processes, have an antiseptic effect and are safe. How to cook and store them is quite simple.
For example, treatment at home can be carried out using medicinal herbs and other means:
- Oak bark. Prepare a decoction (cook for 5 minutes) from a tablespoon of oak bark and 200 ml of water and rinse your mouth twice a day. In the decoction, you can add lime color - two parts of oak bark and one - linden. With this decoction, you can rinse your mouth after each meal. Tannins strengthen gums very effectively.
- Sage. An infusion is prepared from this herb by pouring 1 tablespoon of the herb 200 g of boiling water and insisting for half an hour. After filtering, you need to rinse the infusion with your mouth twice a day.
- Chamomile.The infusion is prepared in the same way. Rinse the oral cavity after each meal. You can also drink chamomile tea.
- Calendula.Two teaspoons of inflorescences pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, leave for 5 minutes. Rinse several times a day. You can alternate rinsing this infusion with a decoction of St. John's wort.
- Blackberry leaf and hypericum. Mix 2 tbsp. l of these herbs, pour 100 ml of alcohol. Cover with a lid and keep in a dry place for 5 days. Infusion with a cotton pad rub gums every day for two weeks.
- Aloe.Connect 2 tbsp. l aloe and onion juice. The mixture with a cotton swab is applied to the gums twice a day. It is also recommended to chew aloe leaves with particles of fresh onion. This should be done slowly, for several minutes, repeating the procedure three times a day.
- Walnut. Pour 400 ml of boiling water 1 tbsp. l walnut leaves. When the mixture is infused for an hour, strain and use for rinsing 1-2 r. in a day. You can make a decoction of unripe nuts. Three tbsp. l chopped nuts pour 200 ml. water and boil for 20 minutes. Rinse several times a day.
- Sunflower oil. Used for rinsing, which is carried out before brushing your teeth.
- Potatoes. Fresh grated potatoes should be kept in the mouth for 5-10 minutes.
Common diseases in which bleeding may occur:
- Hemophilia, which is transmitted from mother to child.
- Skin diseases and allergic reactions.
- Papilloma virus or influenza.
If you notice such bleeding during toothbrushing, or at any other time, you should definitely seek medical help.
A sharp "darling" from the mouth in medicine is called halitosis.
Professional gum bleeding treatment
If treatment at home does not give the expected results, professional therapy should be carried out. Initially, the doctor carries out brushing and removes tartar with ultrasound. It is important to consider that treatment during pregnancy should be carried out according to a different scheme, since ultrasound cannot be used during this period.
It is further recommended that daily rinses be carried out using drugs. How to rinse your mouth, the doctor will tell. As a rule, for this purpose Chlorhexidine which is used for 10 days. Brush your teeth after breakfast and rinse for one minute. In the evening, before going to bed, after rinsing, gums should be dried with a gauze swab and applied to them Chrysal gel. Alternative remedies for bleeding can also be used.
Use only toothbrushes labeled Soft, which have very soft bristles. It is important to regularly use dental floss.
Be sure to visit the dentist twice a year.
There are three types of this problem:
✔People around you may smell stale from your mouth, which is a consequence of a digestive disorder or illness.
✔There is hardly a smell coming from your mouth, usually with mistaken halitosis,
✔You experience a real phobia due to the unpleasant odor from your mouth, in fact there is no smell, and this problem is called halitophobia.
Determining exactly your problem will help the trip to the doctor.
If you still have an unpleasant smell that comes from your mouth - this suggests that you may rarely brush your teeth.
Bacteria, which gradually accumulate on the teeth and cheeks, begin to secrete hydrogen sulfide and, precisely because of it, the air exhaled by a person already smells bad.
To prevent this from happening, you should brush your teeth and rinse them more often, and the problem will disappear.
People who don’t watch their teeth at all have a bad smell due to problems with their teeth or gums.
Halitosiscan cause various diseases, such as caries, stomatitis, smell can cause wisdom teeth, and sometimes tooth crowns become pathogens.
All this happens because food particles begin to stagnate in the mouth, staying there for a long time. To prevent this from happening, monitor your teeth and visit your dentist regularly.
How to treat bleeding at home
If a person has a tendency to bleeding from the gums, it is very important to pay special attention to hygiene issues.
- The choice of toothpaste. Better to use high-quality specialized toothpastes - Lacalut, Blanks, Mexidol. If the gums are bleeding, paste is effective Parodontax.
- Rinsing solutions. They reduce the risk of inflammatory processes. Rinse aid recommended "Perio-Aid", VitizOrthodontic, "PresiDent", "Forest Balsam" and etc.
- Antiseptics. Apply for sanitation of the oral cavity. Remediation is carried out Eludril, Lugol's solution, Chlorhexidine, Corsodil, Miramistin, Novoimaninsolution Furatsilina 0,2%, Iodinol, Chlorfilliptom and others. Such solutions are used in courses. Do not use them longer than ten days.
- Pills that dissolve. Means will help to overcome the infection Septolete, Pharyngosept, Grammidine, Hexalysis, Decamine etc. They cannot be used for a long time, as a rule, the dentist prescribes a course of treatment.
- Means for healing the mucosa. Rotokan, Salvin, Stomatophyte, Sea buckthorn oilpasta Solcoserylspray Periodontal diseasegel MetragilDent.
- Ascorutin. Reduces fragility of capillaries. The course of use is 1 week.
Marigold flowers, like chamomile, are also sold in the pharmacy in the form of dry raw materials or tinctures. They are used for rinsing at the rate of 2 tbsp. l in a glass of water or 1 tsp. tinctures for the same amount of liquid.
It has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial effects. Perhaps alternating with chamomile and treatment with folk remedies.
To reduce the recurrence of inflammation and bleeding gums, it is necessary to follow the preventive recommendations:
- together with the dentist choose a toothbrush, toothpaste and thread for oral care,
- learn the proper brushing technique,
- normalize nutrition
- remove tartar,
- cure dental diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis, etc.),
- do not stop oral care if the gums between the teeth are bleeding,
- apply folk remedies and rinse solutions that help eliminate the inflammatory process, blood flow, signs of halitosis and pain.
Choosing a Toothbrush and Toothpaste
The effectiveness of therapy and the number of relapses depends on the correct choice of a toothbrush and toothpaste.
The toothbrush should be with soft bristles and a mark on the packaging soft, you can use carbon toothbrushes with ultra-soft bristles.
When bleeding gums, you should choose a toothpaste marked Active. The most effective and affordable products are Parodontax, Splat, Forest Balsam with oak bark, Asepta Parodontal.
When blood appears from the gums, often patients do not want to injure them once again and postpone the care and brushing of their teeth for an indefinite period. This decision is wrong.
If a bleeding problem occurs, hygiene should not be neglected and oral care should not be postponed until after the symptoms have passed. It is important to clean the cavity, tongue, massage the gums.
When brushing your teeth, the movements should be soft, smooth and gentle. Without excessive pressure and effort. The duration of the procedure is at least 3 minutes. Frequency - twice a day, after each meal - rinse the mouth with plain water.
If a person has gum bleeding, it is necessary to deal with the causes of this condition. Until the moment the dentist makes a diagnosis and prescribes treatment, you can use folk remedies. But in order to maintain the health of the oral cavity and teeth, you need to consult a doctor.
Education: She graduated from the Rivne State Basic Medical College with a degree in Pharmacy. She graduated from Vinnitsa State Medical University. M.I. Pirogov and an internship based on it.
Experience: From 2003 to 2013, she worked as a pharmacist and manager of a pharmacy kiosk. She was awarded letters and distinctions for many years of conscientious work. Articles on medical topics were published in local publications (newspapers) and on various Internet portals.