12 main symptoms and signs of a brain stroke

Doctors note that if assistance is provided within 3 hours after signs of a stroke have appeared in men, a complete restoration of impaired functions is possible. But at the first signs of pathology, there is rarely a doctor next to the victim - others have to recognize the disease and provide first aid. Let us examine by what signs acute cerebral ischemia can be determined and what to do before the doctors arrive.

ONMK Forerunners

Before a stroke, in most cases, symptoms appear indicating that brain cells are experiencing oxygen starvation:

  • sudden weakness
  • causeless nausea
  • dizziness,
  • noise in ears,
  • a headache that does not have a clear localization,
  • double vision or darkening in the eyes,
  • one-sided numbness of the limbs,
  • difficulty speaking.

Symptoms of an approaching stroke depend on the localization of the ischemic process. Not all signs will necessarily appear, but if a man has found more than 2 of the symptoms described above, then you should pay attention to the condition that has arisen.

Unlike women, the pre-stroke in the stronger sex ends and there comes a short period of improvement, when it seems that nothing threatens health. But the luminous gap does not last long, and soon the state worsens.

Microstroke its concept and specificity

By a small stroke, doctors understand temporary cerebral circulatory disorders, this is a transient ischemic attack. This kind is the precursor of the "real". It can happen a day, a week, a month before the “true”.

This type is characterized by short-term suspension or circulatory disturbance of the brain. Which significantly interferes with his work.

Symptoms are incredibly similar to a “true” stroke, the only difference is that everything recovers after 10 - 15 minutes. The body itself restores blood supply.

IMPORTANT! If a person has experienced something similar, you need to immediately go to the hospital!

Causes of a stroke in men

The main cause of the disease is the development of pathological changes in the cerebral vessels, which are accompanied by disorders of the blood supply to various parts of the brain. Similar processes are noted in the presence of certain factors, among which:

  • wall ruptures in the supply vessels,
  • blockage of the lumen by blood clots, bacteria, metastases or atherosclerotic plaques,
  • spasm of the vascular walls.

If there are problems with the cardiovascular system, the likelihood of an attack is much higher. To prevent the appearance of pathological changes associated with circulatory disorders and violation of the integrity of the vascular walls, it is necessary to deal with the treatment of concomitant diseases in a timely manner and regularly monitor the level of blood pressure.

Symptoms of acute ischemia

The manifestations of a stroke depend on the place of occurrence of acute ischemia, but for men, a more characteristic disorder of motor activity:

  • Weakness in one of the limbs. The patient is asked to simultaneously raise both arms or legs - on the affected side, the limb will listen worse. Complete paralysis may develop.
  • Difficulty swallowing (contractility of muscles on one side of the throat and oropharynx decreases). A person has salivation, difficulty speaking (decreased sensitivity of the tongue), the corner of the mouth drops.
  • Migraine-like pain, which is not stopped by taking analgesics.
  • Brain vomiting. After emptying the stomach, the patient does not feel relief.
  • Change of sight. The movement of the eyeball from the side of the lesion is difficult, the pupil is dilated. A man can not focus his eyes, doubles before his eyes. Visual disturbances exacerbate headaches. Outwardly, the victim’s gaze looks “inanimate” due to the weak mobility of one eye.
  • Lack of coordination. A person cannot perform precise movements; gait becomes shaky.
  • Confusion. The man is stunned, poorly oriented in space, may not recognize others.

With extensive brain damage, stupor or coma develops, involuntary urination occurs. In severe cases, convulsions appear.

The symptoms of a stroke in men are gradually progressing. Without timely assistance, the signs of ischemia that cause brain cell death increase. Prolonged oxygen starvation leads to irreversible impairment of brain functions, and in severe cases, causes death.

First signs

According to statistical analysis, most often it develops in the early morning or late night.

  • The muscles on the face, arms, legs numb sharply and unexpectedly, most often on the one hand. It’s known that the side that was paralyzed is always opposed to the focus of the stroke,
  • A person is not able to speak coherently, clearly, even single words,
  • Suddenly, the visual acuity of both or one eye of the patient decreases,
  • Coordination sharply worsens, gait is shaky, dizziness, loss of orientation in space,
  • A sharp, incredibly severe pain in the head,
  • Most often, blood pressure rises
  • A person blushes instantly, his breathing quickens, his pulse is slow and tense, his temperature is high,

IMPORTANT! If you witness a similar set of symptoms, immediately call an ambulance! Clearly describe the symptoms by phone. Comfort the patient, lay him down.

Five features of a stroke in men

For men, it is characteristic:

  1. More frequent occurrence of the disease (at the age of 40-60 years, the disease occurs 30% more often in men, after 60 years the frequency of occurrence of the pathology is compared for both sexes). This is explained by the fact that women at a young age are protected from vascular catastrophes (strokes, heart attacks) by female sex hormones. In menopause, when the production of hormones decreases significantly, and then completely stops, the incidence of stroke becomes the same for men and women.
  2. The onset of the disease after 40 years, in women, the disease usually develops after 60 years.
  3. Mortality after a stroke in men is less.
  4. Of the varieties of stroke in men, an ischemic form more often occurs, while in women a hemorrhagic appearance more often occurs.
  5. Provoking factors in men are often bad habits (smoking, alcohol), in women - stressful situations, the use of hormonal contraceptives (one of the side effects of these drugs is increased thrombosis).

Ischemic

It is characterized by a gradual increase in the clinical picture, which is accompanied by certain precursors that indicate an ischemic attack of the brain. Among the etiological factors of the ischemic form of the disease, there are:

  1. Reducing the diameter of blood vessels. Thanks to healthy vessels, stable circulation is ensured, which allows tissues to receive the necessary substances and oxygen. Over time, the vascular walls lose their elasticity, which contributes to a violation of the blood supply to certain areas of the brain.
  2. Hereditary predisposition, which is accompanied by a decrease in the number of collagen fibers compared with elastic. This pathology contributes to the wear of the vascular walls with their further deformation.
  3. Stenosis of cerebral vessels. It develops with accumulations on the inner side of the walls of atherosclerotic plaques. Over time, this leads to obstruction of the nutrient vessel. In addition, these formations can be torn off and transported through the bloodstream, which helps to close the lumen of smaller vascular structures. In the early stages of development, this pathology is asymptomatic, but over time it can lead to the development of serious complications.

What is a stroke?

This concept means acute violation of cerebral circulation, in abbreviated form - stroke. Pathology develops due to damage or obstruction of the vessels that feed the brain. From Latin, “stroke” translates as a jump or leap. As a result of a vascular catastrophe (stroke), a part of the brain that has lost blood supply dies and loses its functions. A stroke is formed in stages:

  1. Blockage of vessels supplying the brain with a blood clot or a sharp jump in pressure.
  2. The development of oxygen starvation of cells due to impaired circulation.
  3. The death of brain cells due to the progression of hypoxia, the formation of a site of necrosis, which can not perform its usual functions.

A stroke has several developmental mechanisms. It is divided into types depending on the nature of the changes that lead to the death of brain cells. There are three types of this pathology:

  • Ischemic. It is associated with insufficient blood flow or complete cessation of blood supply to a particular area of ​​the brain due to thrombosis.
  • Hemorrhagic. It is a hemorrhage in the substance of the brain due to damage to the vascular walls. The resulting hematoma compresses the brain cells, causing a violation of their functional activity or death.
  • Subarachnoid. With this type of blood, it enters the space between the arachnoid and soft membranes of the brain.

Separately, it is worth noting the concept of "microstroke." This is an unofficial medical term that is often used even by doctors. A microstroke is also an acute circulatory disorder, but at the same time, brain cells suffer from a lack of oxygen from several minutes to several days. As a result, their functions are subsequently restored. "Micro" indicates that only small vessels were destroyed. Stroke in men has several features and differences:

  • in males it is more common by 30%,
  • men can face such a pathology even after 40 years, in women it is diagnosed after 60 years,
  • male mortality from this pathology is lower
  • for men, the ischemic form is characteristic, for women - hemorrhagic.

Expert Opinion

The danger of a stroke is the high risk of death. In addition, a violation of cerebral circulation leads to serious complications. According to the Federal State Statistics Service, stroke ranks second in mortality. The disease is the cause of disability. Depending on the severity of the lesion, in 60-70% of cases, patients are assigned a disability group. The ability to self-service is lost in 10-15%. In men, stroke occurs with the same frequency as in women. A cerebrovascular accident is more often recorded between the ages of 40 and 65. However, recently, doctors have revealed the onset of the disease at an earlier age.

Diagnosis of a stroke at the Yusupov hospital is carried out using modern medical equipment. With the help of CT, MRI, it is possible to establish the type of violation, its localization and degree of prevalence. In accordance with the data obtained, the correct therapy is selected. With the timely start of treatment, a complete restoration of lost functions is possible. An individual rehabilitation complex is developed for each patient at the Yusupov hospital. It includes not only medications, but also physical therapy and physiotherapy.

Initial symptoms of a stroke in men

Timely identification of the first symptoms of the disease largely determines the success of treatment. Before the appearance of the attack itself, “bells” may appear, foreshadowing its approach:

  1. Frequent headaches (or cephalgia). Cephalgia is persistent in nature, can not be treated with conventional means (mainly this is a group of NSAIDs - analgin, ibuprofen, indomethacin, pentalgin).
  2. Dizziness, weakness. In this state, you often want to lie down, relax.
  3. Nausea. It is not related to eating.
  4. Violation of clarity, accuracy, coordination of movements. Difficulty is caused by simple manipulations, "everything falls from the hands."
  5. Blurred speech. It can be observed not constantly, but in periods.
  6. Rush of blood to the head. The complexion becomes crimson, a feeling of heat is felt.
  7. Sharp mood swings. From a cheerful person, it can dramatically become tearful and vice versa.
  8. Numbness of the arm or leg, usually one-sided. There may be numbness in half of the face.

If such signals are detected, you should immediately consult a doctor to find out their cause.

After the appearance of symptoms of precursors, the condition in men can improve for a while. During this period, they feel completely healthy and most often do not seek medical help. It is generally characteristic for men to underestimate the severity of their condition and neglect the help of specialists. Imaginary well-being continues until a more serious attack of the disease occurs.

When contacting specialists during this period, timely identifying the causes of malaise and providing professional assistance, a stroke attack may not develop or proceed in a milder form (like a micro stroke or transient cerebrovascular accident).

Click on photo to enlarge

Women, unlike men, do not have such a "bright gap": and the precursors smoothly turn into a stroke attack.

To determine the disease in the early stages, a simple test has been developed to accurately determine the stroke.

Causes of a stroke in men

The main reason is a pathological process in the vessels of the brain in the form of a violation of blood supply. This is due to the presence of any obstruction to blood flow. Such a process is observed in the following cases:

  • when the supply vessel ruptures - causes a hemorrhagic stroke,
  • at blockage of vessels blood clots, atherosclerotic plaques, a gas bubble, metastases or bacterial screenings,
  • with vascular spasm - causes a sharp jump in pressure, which is typical for people with persistent hypertension.

These are common causes of a stroke, but various diseases of the internal organs, body features, and some bad habits of men can lead to problems with blood supply. The list of such risk factors includes:

  • atherosclerosis,
  • malformation,
  • benign vascular tumor,
  • thrombophlebitis
  • increased blood coagulation
  • elderly age,
  • smoking,
  • alcohol abuse
  • arterial hypertension,
  • thrombophlebitis
  • diet with the use of mainly fried and fatty foods,
  • obesity,
  • sedentary lifestyle,
  • frequent stresses
  • hereditary predisposition
  • diabetes.

Hemorrhagic

The development of this form of the disease is caused by ruptures of blood vessels with further hemorrhages in the brain tissue. It is characterized by suddenness, which is accompanied by severe cephalalgia and loss of consciousness.

Hemorrhagic stroke is much less common than ischemic stroke, but it is more dangerous. Among the causes of pathology, the following phenomena are distinguished:

  1. Rupture of aneurysm. Aneurysm is a thinning of the vascular wall as a result of exposure to many factors, among which the main one is hypertension. When it ruptures, a hemorrhage occurs in the structure of the brain, which leads to the development of hemorrhage.
  2. Head injuries.Under the influence of various mechanical factors on the skull, damage to the vascular walls is possible with a violation of their integrity, which contributes to hemorrhage in the brain tissue.

Harbingers of Stroke in Men

The first symptoms of a stroke in men can be mild, so the patient is not always aware of the danger of the condition. The appearance of alarm bells is short-lived, but the period of remission between exacerbations is also short-lived. In order to recognize the approach of an attack, it is necessary to pay attention to the precursors of the disease, which have characteristic differences:

  • frequent dizziness and pain at the site of the focus,
  • squeezing sensation in the chest area,
  • nausea, gag reflexes,
  • sudden mood swings, causeless psycho-emotional disorders,
  • redness of the face against the background of hot flashes,
  • tinnitus
  • rapid breathing
  • sharp pain in the back of the head,
  • insomnia,
  • fast fatiguability,
  • shortness of breath while moving and at rest,
  • distracted attention.

If you have such signals, you should go to the hospital for help for several days. An examination in Moscow can be done at the Yusupov Clinic, where neurologists will diagnose with modern equipment and establish an accurate diagnosis even at the initial stage of development of a stroke.

Depending on the location of the damage to the cerebral arteries, the characteristic symptoms of a stroke in a man appear:

  1. In the brain stem - a sharp loss of consciousness, paralysis from two sides, after which a person falls into a coma.
  2. In the subarachnoid space, pronounced cerebral signals are present.
  3. In the cerebellum - pain of an intense nature in the back of the head, severe nausea and vomiting. Feature: the patient cannot take an upright position.
  4. In the ventricles - the disease is accompanied by fainting.
  5. In the parietal lobe - acquired skills are lost, tactile sensations are violated, spatial disorientation occurs.
  6. In the temporal lobe - the patient does not recognize the usual sounds, does not understand the native language. Pathology is accompanied by hallucinations.
  7. In the frontal lobe - causeless aggression appears, or, conversely, depression, convulsions.

Background

This vascular pathology does not occur suddenly. Even before an acute disturbance in the blood supply to the brain, certain symptoms appear. According to them, one can suspect the development of a stroke. One of these symptoms is a headache that cannot be relieved by conventional analgesics, including Paracetamol and Ibuprofen. A man may feel unreasonable weakness, deterioration in overall health. Dizziness appears until unconsciousness. Many of these symptoms are attributed to mere fatigue.

If the patient is in a fainting state, he does not respond to external stimuli. Other long-term signs of pre-stroke in men:

  • numbness of the facial muscles and limbs,
  • memory impairment
  • motor coordination disorders,
  • noise in ears,
  • sudden one-sided weakness in one arm or leg.

The main signs of a stroke

Later, other symptoms of the disease may appear in men. The symptoms listed below can occur in both men and women. For men, a violation of coordination of movements, numbness of the limbs is more characteristic, for women - emotional lability, impaired consciousness, speech.

  1. Ask the test subject to shake hands. On the affected side, the handshake will be significantly weaker. This is due to paresis, a decrease in muscle strength. If you determine the strength of the muscles using a dynamometer, then on a numbed arm it will be significantly less.
  2. Salivation, violation of swallowing. In stroke, it is recommended to grind all food. You need to eat slowly so as not to choke.
  3. With an attack, an unbearable headache occurs that cannot be removed in the usual way.
  4. Confusion or loss of consciousness (coma) occurs with extensive strokes, more often with a hemorrhagic form.
  5. Indomitable (cerebral) vomiting, which does not bring relief.
  6. The gait becomes shaky, like a drunk.
  7. Involuntary urination, defecation may occur.
  8. Paralysis, paresis (incomplete paralysis) may occur.
  9. The loss of some normal reflexes, the appearance of pathological.
  10. Visual impairment, hearing impairment.
  11. Dilation of the pupil and fixing the gaze on the side of the lesion.
  12. When you try to puff out your cheeks, one of the cheeks “sails”.
  13. The omission of the eyelid (ptosis), of the corner of the mouth on one side is noted.
  14. Bradycardia (slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute).
  15. An attack of seizures similar to epileptic.

Test SPD

U - a smile. Ask the subject to smile. With a stroke, an asymmetric smile appears, resembling a smirk. On the healthy side, the corner of the lips will be raised. On the affected side, the angle of the lips remains lowered, since the sensitivity of this area decreases. The same is observed when the patient tries to grin - a pronounced asymmetry will be traced.

Z - talk to a man. With a stroke, blurred speech appears. Speech becomes slurred, sometimes it may be completely absent (aphasia). Some patients describe the feeling that they have a "mouthful of porridge" when talking. Not only pronunciation is disturbed, but also speech understanding. If you ask the patient to stick his tongue out, then, like the previous test, the tongue will be shifted to one side (deviation) - normally the tongue should be located in the midline.

P - raise up both hands. In a stroke, one arm will be lower than the other. If you try to hold your hands in an extended position on the side of the lesion, the lowering of the diseased hand will also be determined.

Test SPD

Risk factors for stroke in men

Blood circulation in GM is disturbed against the background of negative factors. The causes of stroke in men do not differ from the etiology of the origin of the disease in women, but bad habits are the most common factors. Because of what, brain damage can occur in the stronger sex:

  • frequent use of alcoholic beverages,
  • long-term smoking
  • taking drugs
  • obesity with diabetes and unhealthy diet,
  • physical inactivity - a sedentary lifestyle,
  • heavy sports
  • excessive physical labor,
  • taking certain groups of drugs,
  • constant overheating of the body (in the sun, in a hot shop, etc.),
  • pathological changes against the background of age,
  • genetic predisposition
  • frequent stress, nerve stress,
  • blockage of blood vessels due to diseases of the cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, arrhythmia, ischemia, heart failure, vasculitis, etc.),
  • hormonal imbalance on the background of thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus,
  • migraine,
  • body intoxication,
  • infectious diseases.

Representatives of the strong half of humanity suffer a pathological condition more easily than women. It takes less time to restore the body. This is due to physical preparation and the lack of a tendency to frequent psycho-emotional disorders. The consequences of a stroke in men can also be severe, depending on the course of the disease and the timeliness of going to the clinic.

First aid for a woman with a stroke

  • Call an ambulance team,
  • Lay the patient, raise her head a little,
  • Provide oxygen
  • Release your chest from squeezing clothes,
  • Measure your blood pressure
  • If necessary, turn the patient’s head to one side, this will prevent vomiting from entering the respiratory organs,
  • If severe vomiting, be sure to clean the patient’s mouth from the erupted, so that it does not choke,
  • Keep calm, do not panic.

Symptoms of stroke and microstroke in men

With progression, the symptoms of pre-stroke in men are supplemented by more serious symptoms. Irritability to bright light and loud sounds appears. A feeling of anxiety gradually builds up, a person feels a breakdown and drowsiness. All symptoms are divided into cerebral and focal. The first group of signs include:

  • sudden, sharp intense local pain in the area of ​​hemorrhage,
  • impaired consciousness of varying degrees - from drowsiness to fainting,
  • clonic cramps
  • nausea and vomiting,
  • indomitable vomiting
  • pallor or cyanosis of the skin.

Cerebral symptoms appear first. After a day, focal signs join them. Their severity depends on the location and area of ​​the lesion. Separately, it is worth noting the pressure during a stroke in men: in hypotensive patients it decreases, in hypertensive patients, on the contrary, it increases. Other focal symptoms:

  • paresis - numbness of the limbs,
  • paresthesia - a decrease in the sensitivity of the skin in the area of ​​the body that is innervated by the affected part of the brain,
  • visual and hearing impairment,
  • pupil dilation and fixation of gaze on the affected side,
  • Slow heart rate
  • drooping of the century
  • memory loss,
  • aphasia - speech impairment,
  • confusion,
  • decrease in muscle mass
  • violation of swallowing, salivation,
  • loss of consciousness,
  • involuntary urination and bowel movements.

With a micro stroke, almost the same symptoms are observed. Sometimes it goes unnoticed, since the manifestations are short-lived. The first signs of a microstroke are causeless general weakness and dizziness. In some patients, pathology is limited to only these two symptoms. Other signs of a microstroke in a man:

  • acute pain in the frontal or occipital part of the head,
  • a state close to confusion,
  • tingling and numbness of the limbs and face,
  • hemiparesis - weakness on one side of the body,
  • ataxia - impaired coordination of movements,
  • dysphagia and aphasia - speech disorders,
  • short attention span,
  • temporary decrease in clarity of vision in one eye,
  • shaky gait
  • difficulties in viewing the object,
  • sweating or chills,
  • spots of light before the eyes
  • noise in ears,
  • temperature is 37 degrees.

Symptoms of a stroke in a man's legs are disguised as mild ailment. It is manifested by weakness, fatigue, frequent headaches, impaired concentration of attention. The danger here is possible consequences - from a second stroke or microstroke to a full brain ischemia. In this case, the risk of disability is high. In addition, treatment of a stroke on the legs can take a longer time - from 3 months to 1.5 years.

Emergency first aid measures

When determining the first symptoms of the disease, you need to immediately call an ambulance. When transmitting data to the dispatcher, clearly describe the situation and the first symptoms of a stroke, especially the ultrasound test

Click on photo to enlarge

Prior to the arrival of doctors, first aid is needed. Emergency Response Algorithm:

1. Place the patient by lifting the head end. You can not allow the patient to get up, move, this can worsen the course and prognosis of the disease.

2. Unfasten the collar of the shirt, untie the tie, provide an influx of fresh air.

3. Put a cold on your head, a hot heating pad at your feet.

4. When stopping breathing, perform artificial respiration by the mouth-to-mouth method.

5. When vomiting, turn the man on his side to avoid aspiration (ingestion) of vomit, carefully clean the vaginal cavity.

6. Measure blood pressure, record indicators to transmit information to the doctor. If necessary, give drugs that lower blood pressure.

It is important to remember: it is undesirable to reduce the pressure too much (a decrease of 15–20% from the initial level is considered optimal). It is better to use for this purpose the drugs that this patient usually uses. If you are not sure about the possibility of their use, it is better to wait for a doctor.

The list of drugs used to quickly reduce blood pressure, as an emergency care:

  • nifedipine
  • captopril
  • egiloc, anaprilin (used with a simultaneous increase in blood pressure and increased heart rate, the use of the drug is contraindicated in bradycardia (with a heart rate below 60),
  • physiotens,
  • clonidine (a potent drug, issued strictly by prescription).

7. Reassure the patient.

8. If the patient is conscious - give him 10 tablets of glycine under the tongue. It is necessary to dissolve the drug until it is completely dissolved. This drug is based on a natural neurotransmitter that is formed in the body. The medication has a sedative, neuroprotective effect (protects brain tissue, does not allow the outbreak to spread). The medicine does not have side effects, has no contraindications.

Upon the arrival of an ambulance, inform the doctor about the first and subsequent symptoms of the disease, indicators of pressure and pulse, the assistance provided, the medications taken.

Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

IHM is divided into two main types, depending on the cause of occurrence:

  1. The ischemic form is considered less dangerous, since it is characterized by a developmental duration, which allows timely detection of deviations in the cerebral blood supply. The root cause is a blockage by a thrombus, narrowing of the lumen in the arteries, as a result of which a deficiency of oxygen and nutrients develops, since blood does not circulate in a normal rhythm.
  2. The hemorrhagic type is the most dangerous, as it occurs unexpectedly, proceeds in an acute form. It develops most often against the background of pathological disorders, which leads to rupture of the cerebral arteries and hemorrhage. Another name is apoplexy stroke, before which blood pressure rises sharply. During the gap, the cranial cavity is filled with blood fluid, which contributes to the formation of hematomas. The severity of symptoms depends on the type of rupture - extensive or small focal.

The treatment method is selected based on the variety of the disease, which is determined during the diagnostic measures. At the Yusupov hospital, doctors conduct a comprehensive examination to identify the severity, form, prescription of the development of pathology, on the basis of which individual therapy is prescribed, and a preliminary forecast is built.

Signs in men

  • A sharp and rather severe pain in the head,
  • Weakness without explanation and reason,
  • Dizzy
  • Disorders, speaking disorders,
  • Decrease, change in vision,
  • Fading, taking away any limb or part of the body.

Quite often, these symptoms are only the precursors of stroke, the patient becomes easier after a short period, without any intervention.

First aid

It is recommended to take care of the patient immediately after the harbingers of stroke appear in men:

  • Lay the person down with a soft roller under the head and shoulders.
  • Call a medical team. By telephone, explain to the dispatcher the circumstances of the ischemic attack, indicate the patient’s symptoms.
  • Provide free breathing. Loosen belt, unfasten buttons, remove tie.
  • Apply a warm heating pad to the calf muscles. Cold to the head is allowed to apply only with hemorrhagic strokes. If there is no certainty that a hemorrhage has occurred, then it is better not to apply cold, to get by with a heating pad.
  • Reassure the patient. During the pre-stroke, men refuse help, considering healthy, and when severe symptoms appear, they are frightened and confused. Resting is important for maintaining health.
  • Measure pressure and pulse. If the blood pressure indicator slightly exceeds the norm, then the patient should not be given drugs. At a pressure of 180 and above, if the person is conscious, give a pill of Moxonidine or Captopril to dissolve.

Before the arrival of the ambulance, you need to monitor the condition of the victim, controlling breathing, pulse and pressure. Arriving doctors to tell what drugs were given, and how the person's condition has changed since the onset of the attack.

The signs of a second stroke and the algorithm of first aid are the same as with the primary form of pathology. But you should carefully monitor the victims - repeated bouts of acute ischemia men are more difficult to tolerate.

Signs of Alcoholism

One of the risk factors for stroke in men is alcoholism. With this dependence, the likelihood of cerebrovascular accident is very high, especially with frequent and prolonged binges. The danger of a stroke in this case is that its symptoms are lost against the general background of the usual complaints associated with alcohol abuse. In this case, you need to pay attention to the following symptoms:

  • facial redness
  • growing headache
  • nausea that gets stronger when you try to sit or stand up,
  • ripples and blows in the temples,
  • Pain in the eyes,
  • uneven breathing
  • vomiting reflex,
  • lisping, burr,
  • stupor, incomprehensible muttering in response to questions,
  • glass eyes.

The first symptoms of ischemic stroke in men

Ischemic lesions in the stronger sex are often diagnosed after a 40-year milestone, especially with such abnormalities as atherosclerosis and thrombosis that occur against the background of an improper lifestyle. It proceeds in the following forms:

  1. The subacute appearance is characterized by a gradual increase in symptoms, since blood circulation is not completely disturbed. An attack can happen in a few hours and days (maximum 3-4).
  2. The acute type is characterized by rapid and pronounced symptoms. During the stroke, blood supply stops, due to which the death of tissues in the departments of GM (necrosis) occurs. It features extensive foci.
  3. Chronic form - from the beginning of the appearance of alarm signals to an attack, 2 or more months pass. The nature of the signs up to exacerbation is moderate.
  4. The step-type flow is characterized by a frequent change in remission and exacerbation. Impact is possible after 2 weeks.

At an early stage of the disease, dizziness, chest pain, loss of strength, weakness, and stupor are noted. Further, the patient reveals the following:

  • nausea and gagging
  • difficulty swallowing
  • epileptic seizures
  • partial loss of memory
  • fainting
  • paresis in the muscle system of the tongue and face (usually on the one hand),
  • violation of coordination of movements - gait changes, stability decreases,
  • loss of orientation in space,
  • increased sweating
  • lack of air
  • numbness in the upper and lower extremities,
  • paralysis of one or both sides,
  • the impossibility of full pronunciation of words,
  • a sharp decrease in visual acuity,
  • difficulty reading, counting, spelling words,
  • progression of memory loss.

Usually one of the sides of the body is affected: if damage to the arteries occurs on the left, then numbness and curvature is observed on the right side and vice versa.

How to quickly recognize a stroke

If you suspect that you or a person has a stroke nearby, check this with simple manipulations:

  • ask the person to smile: a characteristic sign of a stroke is a “crooked” smile. The face of a person suffering from a stroke is asymmetrical, and the corners of the mouth are raised either unevenly, or only one corner of the mouth rises,
  • ask the person something that implies a few words answer: if a man cannot pronounce even simple words, then most likely it’s a stroke,
  • ask to raise both hands: if the victim is not able to do this or his hands are raised asymmetrically, this is a stroke,
  • ask to show the language: with a stroke, the tongue will be unnaturally bent or deviate to the side.

If the victim is conscious, then he may complain of numbness of the limbs or the whole body, as well as dizziness. If a person tries to walk, then he staggers: this makes others think that the victim is simply drunk and in no hurry to help him.

Test SPD - This is the simple name of a set of actions that serve to recognize a stroke. This name is deciphered as "smile, speak, raise." A stroke victim is asked to smile, then try to say a few sentences and finally raise both hands up.

Determination of severity

Depending on the area of ​​damage to the brain tissue, 3 degrees of severity of a stroke are distinguished:

  1. Easy. A man has mild neurological symptoms: headache, one-sided decrease in sensitivity, etc. Consciousness is preserved. Signs of pathology are insignificant and this makes diagnosis difficult - the symptoms are taken for the manifestation of other diseases. Without timely treatment, ischemia progresses, the patient's condition worsens.
  2. Average. Movement activity decreases, coordination is disturbed, speech is difficult. Consciousness is maintained or the patient is stunned.
  3. Heavy. The man is unconscious, asymmetry of the face is outwardly visible, involuntary urination appears. Perhaps the development of seizures. In severe form, death often occurs.

By timely assessing the severity, you can save a human life. No need to be afraid to call a doctor; there is even doubt about the nature of the disease. Timely assistance will improve the prognosis of the treatment of the disease.

First aid for a man with a stroke

  • Call a medical team
  • If a man with consciousness, help him lie down so that his head is slightly higher than his body. This will contribute to the outflow of blood from the brain,
  • If possible, the victim should not be moved, transferred or transferred, this can only make it worse,
  • Provide access to fresh air, free from tight clothing, belts and other things,
  • Never feed the victim, do not drink. After all, he may not swallow, but choke or choke,
  • Do not give any medicine
  • Clean your mouth completely from any contents. When vomiting, put your head on its side, this will save the respiratory arteries from getting too much,
  • In a situation where the patient is unconscious, but his breathing is normal, he needs to be laid on his side. Put your head on your hand and tilt it slightly forward, and bend your leg at the knee. Such a pose will not allow the patient to turn around and harm himself.

In the absence of breathing, you need to do artificial and combine it with a heart massage. Only these events should be carried out if you know how to do them, otherwise you can harm a person even more.

Factors that increase the risk of tragedy

  • Abuse of alcohol, tobacco products,
  • Increased intracranial pressure (hypertension),
  • Cerebrovascular aneurysm, atherosclerosis,
  • Severe, negative emotional shock.
  • Genetic predisposition.
  • High blood pressure, heart pain of unknown origin.
  • The presence of blood clots or a tendency to their appearance.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Excess weight.

Effects

Since the nervous tissue is incapable of regeneration, dead neurocytes do not recover, which disrupts the functions for which they were responsible. The surrounding tissues partially take on their work, but it is impossible to completely restore the former healthy state of the brain. A man stays with the consequences of a stroke for life:

  • paresis
  • paresthesias
  • dysarthria
  • loss of sensitivity in certain areas of the skin,
  • visual impairment
  • aphasia (a violation of already formed speech),
  • impaired concentration,
  • frequent headaches.

First aid for stroke

In case of detection of any symptoms of pathology, you should immediately call the doctors of the ambulance team. When talking with the dispatcher, it is necessary to clarify the signs that are noted in the victim. While the doctors are traveling, it is necessary to alleviate his condition and provide first aid. For this purpose it is worth:

  1. Lay the patient down. After that, it is necessary to raise his head and place a roller made of fabric or a pillow under it. Next, you need to raise your shoulders so as not to provoke a violation of blood flow in the vessels of the spinal column. Also, the victim should not be raised to prevent the disease from worsening and the development of dangerous complications.
  2. Close clothes should be removed from the patient. This will greatly facilitate the breathing of the victim.
  3. If vomiting is suspected, the patient is laid on his side so as not to block the upper respiratory tract with vomit.
  4. In case of respiratory failure, the victim must perform artificial respiration techniques. For this purpose, his head is thrown back, nostrils are pressed against the septum and air is blown into the mouth for at least 1 second, during which the chest will rise. Repeat the procedure every 2-3 seconds to stabilize breathing.
  5. If the victim is in a conscious state, it is impossible for him to succumb to panic. It is not recommended to tell him about a possible diagnosis, as this can affect his emotional state. It is necessary to speak with this person before the arrival of doctors who will provide him with medical care.

With a sudden attack on the street, you need to call the ambulance station or relatives. Do not be shy to contact passers-by, sellers of nearby stores. After this, you must try to sit on a bench or curb, so as not to harm your health in case of loss of consciousness. You can also drink water, unfasten tight clothes, wash your face with cool water.

A difficult problem is to make a forecast after a stroke. This is especially true of the elderly. Restoring the body is a long journey that requires a lot of time, effort and patience. Patient rehabilitation can be carried out by alternative methods of blood supply to the affected structures. For this reason, there is always a chance of recovery.

Ischemic

Signs of ischemic stroke in men will be as follows:

  • confusion, retardation,
  • difficulty speaking
  • unilateral numbness of the skin of the face and limbs,
  • visual and hearing impairment,
  • fluctuations in blood pressure,
  • increased sweating
  • headache,
  • tachycardia.

An ischemic form of pathology is diagnosed in the stronger sex after 40 years. A high risk of developing the disease in men after 50 who have a history of hypercholesterolemia or a tendency to thrombosis.

Spinal Stroke, Concept and Symptoms

Violation of the blood supply to the spinal cord (spine) occurs unpredictably, sharply. Most often this happens after serious injuries of the spine or embolism of its vessels. It can also develop after several hours, days due to blood clots, atheromatosis, prolonged spasm of the arteries of the spine, blockage of its vessels in cases of meningitis, diabetes, neurosyphilis and other conditions.

Most often develops in old, senile age. There were no gender differences in the specifics of the course of spinal stroke.

Clear data on stroke of the spinal column today is not much. This is due to the complexity of the primary diagnosis.

Stroke test

There is a test such as BE FAST, which is used in medicine to instantly diagnose a stroke. The abbreviation has its own decoding:

  1. B - balance. You need to see how a person makes movements. Poor balance indicates an approaching blow.
  2. E - eyes. Check the level of visual acuity - let the patient alternately close / open his eyes and tell what he sees in front of him.
  3. F - face. Ask to smile and show the language. With an attack, a curvature occurs in one of the sides.
  4. A - arms. Let the victim raise both hands or shake his hands - one of the limbs will be weaker or will not rise.
  5. S - speech. Talk with the victim - with a deficiency of cerebral blood supply, speech is impaired.
  6. T - time. The patient denies an impaired condition.

If you find at least one type of deviation, immediately contact the Yusupov Clinic, where experienced doctors will provide primary medical care, establish an accurate diagnosis, and prescribe therapeutic measures. For this, innovative medical technologies of the European level, powerful equipment, an individual approach are used. You can ask questions and get tested on the indicated numbers.

Treatment

If a man has symptoms of a stroke, he needs to urgently call an ambulance, and provide first aid to the patient before her arrival. The further recovery of the patient depends on how correct and timely it will be. Instructions for the provision of first aid:

  1. Lay the patient on a flat, solid surface, preferably in a shady place.
  2. Raise the man’s head to exclude cerebral edema. In case of vomiting, turn it on its side to prevent vomiting from entering the respiratory tract. Put a cold on your head.
  3. Loosen belt, unfasten tight clothing, tear collar if necessary.
  4. At high pressure, give the man a hypotensive drug. Record indicators to pass them to emergency doctors. For emergency care, Nifedipine, Anaprilin, Egilok, Captopril, Physiotens or Clonidine are used.
  5. If the patient is conscious, give him 10 tablets of Glycine. It is a natural neurotransmitter - it has neuroprotective and sedative effects.

The main treatment is carried out already in stationary conditions. To restore the activity of cerebral vessels, drug therapy is performed. The following groups of drugs are used:

  • Anticoagulants: Fragmin, Fraksiparin, Heparin. Used to prevent thrombosis.
  • Thrombolytics: Alteplase, Streptokinase, Tenecteplase. They are used to dissolve blood clots and normalize blood circulation. Prohibited for hemorrhagic stroke.
  • Antihypertensive: Nifedipine, Corinfar, Cordipine. They are emergency drugs. They reduce pressure, prevent the appearance of blood clots.
  • Neuroprotectors: Cerebrolysin, Piracetam, Vinpocetine. Increase the resistance of the brain to oxygen starvation, improve memory.
  • Disaggregants: Aspirin, Dipyridamole, clopidogrel. They do not allow platelets to stick together, therefore, they help reduce the risk of blood clots.
  • Diuretics: Furosemide, Mannitol. They remove excess fluid, due to which they remove cerebral edema.

After medical treatment, the patient is allowed to return home. Next, the recovery phase begins, including a healthy lifestyle. The patient is given the following recommendations:

  • maintain normal weight
  • protect yourself from worries and stresses,
  • exclude smoking and alcohol,
  • Healthy food.

Diet involves a complete rejection of all fatty, fried, sweet and salty. This also applies to smoked meats, soda, convenience foods, strong tea and coffee, and flour products. Such food can provoke another attack. For its prevention, it is worth consuming more foods containing magnesium and potassium. The diet should contain:

  • seafood,
  • fruits and vegetables,
  • herbal decoctions and fruit drinks,
  • bean
  • low-fat varieties of fish and meat,
  • blueberries
  • dairy products with low fat content.

An important condition for recovery is physical activity. It must be entered into its mode gradually. Normal movements begin to recover about six months after a stroke. To speed up the process, the patient is prescribed healing exercises, kinesitherapy. Rehabilitation can take place in a sanatorium, where, in addition to exercises, a man undergoes courses of massage and physiotherapy.

Hemorrhagic

The main difference between hemorrhage and ischemia is that there are no signs of an impending stroke, the condition worsens suddenly. A man appears:

  • hyperemia of the face,
  • Strong headache,
  • difficulty breathing (wheezing, shortness of breath),
  • heart rhythm disturbance (tachycardia or bradycardia),
  • eye pain, intolerance to bright light,
  • nausea and vomiting,
  • unilateral paralysis and paresis,
  • face asymmetry (eyelid half-lowered, cheek limply sagging, lip corner lowered),
  • severe stupor or loss of consciousness,
  • difficulty orientation in space and self.

Cerebral hemorrhages are characterized by the appearance of seizures, which end with involuntary bowel movements or urination.

The hemorrhagic form of the disease in the elderly is rarely diagnosed, more often from hemorrhage in the brain is detected in men under 30 years old. Hemorrhagic strokes are difficult and almost always result in a person’s disability, and in severe cases a fatal outcome is possible.

Also, a severe course of acute ischemia occurs with alcoholism. Prolonged intoxication of nerve tissue with ethyl alcohol decay products makes it difficult to restore brain tissue, worsening the prognosis of treatment.

Almost all alcoholics after a stroke become disabled.

Predecessors

  • Pain of various localization (limbs, cervical, lumbar spine),
  • CHFM - chronic cerebrospinal failure,
  • Recurrent headache
  • Noises in the head, its severity,
  • Sudden and short dizziness,
  • Fatigue and trouble sleeping,
  • Impaired memory

How to avoid a stroke in men

Since the risk of developing this vascular pathology is high with hypertension, it is necessary to control blood pressure for prevention. In addition, men are at risk for stroke due to alcoholism. For this reason, one of the most important preventive measures is the complete rejection of alcohol. The same goes for smoking and junk food, which increases the risk of obesity. Measures for the prevention of vascular pathologies also include:

  • active lifestyle,
  • control of cholesterol and blood sugar,
  • treatment of existing chronic diseases,
  • reduction of stress and anxiety,
  • ensuring good rest and sleep (at least 7 hours).

Prevention

To prevent stroke attacks, men should adhere to a number of rules that are aimed at strengthening the vascular structures and improving blood flow in the brain. These include:

  • maintaining a healthy lifestyle
  • spending free time on walks,
  • balanced diet,
  • visiting sports sections
  • regular monitoring of blood pressure
  • timely treatment of concomitant pathologies,
  • avoiding stress and hard physical work.

The consequences of this pathology for the most part depend on the speed and quality of the emergency care provided. Knowledge of the clinical picture of the development of the disease in a man will make it possible to begin to render it without delay. During this, a person must confidently and accurately provide assistance to the victim. Only with these conditions will it be possible to avoid serious consequences and maintain the health of the man.

Causes of strokes

The reasons for the appearance of ischemia and hemorrhage are different. The ischemic form of the disease provokes:

A blood clot that blocks blood flow

  • the formation of atherosclerotic plaques,
  • the appearance of intravascular thrombi.

A broken blood clot or plaque clogs the cerebral artery, obstructing blood flow to the area of ​​the brain.

Hemorrhage causes a rupture of a vein or artery, which provokes:

  • head injury,
  • cerebral artery aneurysm (the wall section protrudes and becomes less durable),
  • brain infections (meningitis, encephalitis),
  • systemic diseases of the connective tissue.

Despite the apparent suddenness, acute cerebral ischemia does not appear for no reason. There are always prerequisites for the development of the disease.

Signs of spinal stroke

  • Back pain, various localization and intensity.
  • All kinds of paresthesias, intermittent claudication (imaginary weaning of a limb with prolonged walking, without pain in it).
  • Defects in the functions of the pelvic organs.

In general, the picture is quite different, it is affected by the localization of the lesion, its intensity and cause.

📍 The information is provided solely for popular educational purposes, does not claim to reference and medical accuracy, is not a guide to action. Do not self-medicate. Consult with Special a scholar.

Who is at risk

According to statistics, men more often than women experience strokes, therefore, we consider the main factors that provoke the development of pathology:

  • elderly age,
  • excess weight,
  • lack of exercise
  • frequent stresses
  • excess in the diet of fatty and spicy foods,
  • high cholesterol
  • blood clotting
  • phlebitis and thrombophlebitis,
  • endocrine diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypo- and hyperthyroidism),
  • pathology of blood vessels and heart,
  • hypertension with frequent crises,
  • long-term self-poisoning (smoking and alcoholism in a man after 30 years increase the risk of stroke),
  • genetic predisposition (if among close relatives there were cases of stroke, the likelihood of a violation of cerebral circulation increases).

Conventionally, recently transferred operations are considered a risk factor. With major surgical interventions, the prothrombin index rises to prevent possible blood loss and this, in the presence of other provoking factors, can cause thrombosis of the arteries of the brain.

Avoiding acute cerebral ischemia

It is impossible to predict what will provoke a stroke, but it is possible to reduce the likelihood of developing a pathology. To do this, observe the following rules:

  • Treatment of diseases provocateurs. It is necessary to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood, normalize sugar or stabilize the disturbed hormonal background. It is important to pay attention to the cardiovascular system.
  • Stabilize the course of arterial hypertension. Hypertension is considered one of the triggering factors, so you need to drink prolonged antihypertensive drugs and control blood pressure. At the first sign of a hypertensive crisis, take fast-acting drugs for pressure.
  • Healthy food. Most men prefer flour and meat products, refusing vegetables and fruits. You need to reconsider your diet, reducing the use of smoked, salted or fatty foods and pastries.
  • To live an active lifestyle. A modern man works in the office, and then “relaxes” at home with a laptop on the couch. Lack of fresh air and physical activity adversely affects cerebral circulation. If there is no time for walks and sports, then just walk to work and from work.
  • Take care of the daily routine. Representatives of the stronger sex are forced to provide for their families and the desire to earn money makes them work without rest, neglecting full sleep. The lack of proper rest affects the blood vessels and reduces the efficiency of the brain. It is recommended to rest a bit - this will only increase the ability to work and improve the functioning of blood vessels.

The implementation of these simple recommendations does not guarantee 100% prevention of stroke, but will significantly reduce the risk of developing pathology.

A man at any age may appear the first signs of a stroke, and then his life and health depend on the competent actions of others. Despite the fact that men are easier than women to tolerate acute cerebral ischemia and restore impaired functions faster, it is not worth the risk. Simple prevention will significantly reduce the risk of developing pathology.

Severity of stroke

If we talk about the severity of a stroke, then emit:

  • mild with minor neurological symptoms when recovery occurs in a couple of hours
  • medium degree, when focal neurological lesion occurs, although consciousness is almost not affected
  • severe degree, in which serious neurological consequences with depression of consciousness are manifested

At the same time, a long rehabilitation and restoration with the help of specialists will be required. Much in this matter depends on the speed of first aid, medical calls and hospitalization.

The main causes of stroke

The causes of stroke in men are not particularly different from women, although the latter have their own characteristics. As for the representatives of the stronger sex, their premises are:

  • excess weight
  • high cholesterol
  • hypertension
  • chronic heart or kidney disease
  • smoking and drinking
  • constant stress
  • malnutrition
  • heredity

Stroke Risk Factors

There are also risk groups that are particularly prone to stroke. This is about:

  • hypertension
  • alcoholics
  • men exposed to a lot of physical and emotional stress
  • the presence of heart disease, kidney
  • unstable hormonal background
  • recurrent stroke

Therefore, it is so important to be examined by a doctor on time, take medication and engage in prevention. Then the risks are significantly reduced, and sometimes completely eliminated.

Complications after a stroke

So, you may encounter:

  • numbness of the legs and arms
  • loss of memory, ability to speak, see, distinguish colors
  • paralysis
  • coma
  • depression and apathy
  • loss of sensitivity
  • loss of coordination and sense of space

Recovery takes place in a couple of hours, weeks, or months, depending on the complexity of the consequences, the course of rehabilitation, and individual characteristics. In particular, up to 30 years, the main consequences pass after two to three hours, and after 60 some functions of the body may not be restored at all or partially restored.

Bedsores

Often patients with numbness and paralysis experience the formation of pressure sores. This happens due to poor blood circulation, immobility, blockage of cells, lack of renewal of the body. Therefore, it is so important to do warm-ups, massages, rubbing and alcohol compresses several times a day, which will artificially disperse blood throughout the body, preventing some skin areas from undergoing necrosis.

Pneumonia

Inflammation of the lungs and tonsillitis are one of the most common diseases after a stroke. This happens due to general weakened immunity and appears literally in a couple of days or weeks. When identified, standard antibiotic treatment is carried out, heating, rinsing and taking medications. If pneumonia is left to chance, then a second stroke can occur, but with more serious consequences.

Thrombosis

Thrombosis is also often affected, because brain problems also affect the functioning of the heart and circulatory system, which causes the blood to stop liquefying, straying into lumps. It is most pronounced on the legs, arms, in all large arteries. Then certain parts of the body may stop working, sensitivity will disappear, numbness and paralysis will appear. In this case, special tablets or droppers are prescribed. Although it is often possible to dispense with standard aspirin, but in a certain dosage.

Disorders of thinking and psyche

Violation of thinking and psyche occurs quite often with damage to the left brain, since it is responsible for these processes. Then the patient becomes depressed, apathy or aggression appears, dejection and a sharp emergence of forces appear, a person may not recognize relatives or confuse colors. Recovery of such a patient is more complicated and takes a lot of time, since he must be configured for it. Therefore, without the help of psychologists, neuropathologists and taking antidepressants, one can not do here. The recovery process takes from a month to six months.

Loss of sensitivity

Loss of sensitivity occurs as a result of numbness or paralysis, but passes in a couple of days. This will require daily massage, rubbing, simple exercises and going for physiotherapy. In addition, special medications or droppers may be prescribed. Sometimes loss of sensation affects the hands, face, and the whole body.

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation and recovery course is developed individually, as it depends on the complexity of the situation, gender and age of the patient, the presence of additional diseases. The process takes place in a hospital, at home or in special facilities. The exact period cannot be called, but on average it takes 10-50 days. Then the following is prescribed:

  • walks in the fresh air and complete rest
  • diet
  • quitting smoking and alcohol
  • physical exercise
  • taking medication
  • help of a psychologist, neurologist, physiotherapist
  • chronic disease treatment
  • blood pressure normalization

Watch the video: Medical Update: Stroke Signs, Aneurysm Indications (February 2020).